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65 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Define Asepsis
The Absence of pathogenic (disease producing) microorganisms.
What is aseptic technique?
The practices that keep a client as free from pathogens as possible.
What are the two types of aseptic technique?
Medical Asepsis
Surgical Asepsis
What is another way to describe medical asepsis?
-Clean Technique. Procedures to reduce and prevent the spread of microorganisms.
-Hand Hygiene, Clean Gloves.
Define Infection
The entry and multiplication of an infectious agent in the tissues of a host.
Define Communicable Disease
An infection that can be transmitted directly from one person to another.
Define the Chain of Infection.
Infectious Agent
Portal of Exit
Mode of Transmission
Portal of Entry
Name some microorganisms:
Bacteria / Virsus/ Protozoa / Fungi
What are resident flora?
Permanant residents of the body. They live and multiply harmlessly.
Define Transient Flora:
From one person to another, or person to fomite in normal activity. These are loose attachments.
Name the Four things that affect a microorganism being able to cause disease.
Sufficient Number of organism
Be Virulent
Able to Enter and Survive in Host
Have a Susceptible Host
What is a Reservoir:
A place where pathogens survive. They may or may not multiply.
Name some Reservoirs:
Humans, Animals, insects, food, water, fomites, HCW, clients, equipement, the environment.
What is key to an organisms ability to thrive?
Proper environment: Food, Oxygen, water, temperature, pH, light.
Name some portals of Exit:
Skin/Mucous Membrane/Respiratory Tract/Urinary Tract/GI Tract/Blood/GU Tract.
Name some modes of transmission of disease, and what is special about this step?
This is the most fragile step and can include
-Contact (Direct/Indirect/Droplet)
In the chain of infection, what makes a host susceptible?
Immuno Suppresses / DM / Surgery / Burn Pt / Elderly or Very Young / Travelers / Chemo
What is the progressive Course of Infection by Stage?
-Incubation (Pathogen Entrance and first S/S)
-Prodromal (First nonspecific S/S to more specific S/S. MO grow and multiply and host can spread)
-Illness (Period when client has S/S specific to the type of infection)
-Convalescence (When acute S/S disappear. May take days or months to fully recover)
Differentiate between Localized and Systemic Infection.
Localized is as a wound. Proper care prevents spread. Once infection affects multiple organs or sites, it is considered systemic and can become fatal.
Name some of the Normal Defense Mechanisms by Mechanism.
-Skin - Acidic / Sheds Outer Layers
-Mouth - Multi Layers / Lysozymes
-Eyes - Tears / Blinking
-Respiratory Tract - Cilia and Mucus Macrophages
-Urinary - Flushing / Multilayer epithelium
-GI - Rapid Peristalsis / Acidic
-Vagina - Low pH / Menses
Define Inflammation:
Delivers fluid, blood products and nutrients to interstitial tissues in an area of injury. It neurtalizes and eliminates pathogens or dead (necrotic) tissues and establishes a means of repairing body cells and tissues.
What are signs of inflammation?
Swelling / Redness / Heat / Pain or Tenderness / Loss of Function.

When systemic also includes fever, leukocytosis, malaise, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, lymph node enlargement.
Define Inflammatory Exudate:
Accoummulation of fluid and dead tissue cells and WBC form an exudate at the side of inmflammation. Eventually cleared away through lymphatic drainage. Together with platelets, & fibrinogen a meshlike matrix is formed to prevent spread.
Name three types of Inflammatory Exudate:
*Serous - Clear like plasma
*Sanguineous - Contains RBC
*Purulent - Contains RBC and Bacteria.
Define how tissue is repaired.
Damaged cells are eventually replaced by healthy new cells. Gradually they mature to take on the characteristics of the previous cells. If infmamation is chronic, tissue may be replaced with fragile granulation tissue, which is not as strong as collegen and forms a scar.
Define a Nosocomial Infection:
An infection that results from delivery of health services in a healthcare facility. Can be iatrogenic or exogenous or endogenous.
What is the most common type of nosocomial infection?
Urinary Catheter.
Define a Iatrogenic Infection:
A Nosocimial infection resulting from a diagnostic or therapeutic process ie: URI after Catheter insertion.
Define an Exogenous Infection:
From a microorganism external to the individual that do not exist as normal Salmonella and C. tetani.
Define an Endogenous Infection:
When part of the clients flora becomes altered and an overgrowth results. ie When yeast takes over or when enterococci from feces infects a persons own wound.
Name of the Assessments made for Client Susceptibility to Disease:
Age / Nutritional Status / Stress / Active Disease Processes / Medical Therapy.
What are some of the Clinical Appearances of Infection:
Pain / Inflammation / Drainage / Edema
What is a test that might be used to assess infection?
WBC with Diff / Wound Culttures / Iron Levels.
What is seen in Iron Levels in clients with infections?
They are decreased in chronic infections.
Clients with Infection face a variety of problems. These include:
physical / psychological / social/ economical
Name some nursing diagnosis for Infection:
-Disturbed body Image
-Risk for Infection
-Risk for Injury
-Imbalanced Nutrition less than body requirements
-Impaired oral mucous membrane
-Risk for impared skin integrity
-Social Isolation
-Impaired tissue integrity
Good Infection Control begins with prevention. What is the nurses responsibility :
Minimiaze the number and kind of organisms.

Barrier techniques to control portals of exit/entry and modes of transmission.
The goal in health promotion is to strengthen Host Defenses. How is this accomplished?
-Good Nutritional Support
-Rest reduces energy expendeture
Treatment of an infectious process includes:
eliminating the infectious organisms and supporting the clients defenses.
Define Asepsis:
Absence of pathogenic microorganisms.
Define Aseptic Technique:
Practices that keep a client as free from pathogens as possible.
Define Cleaning:
Removal of all soil. Brush / Detergent and Soap.
Define Disenfection:
Removes many or all MO (Except Spores) from inatimate objects. Includes Alcohol, Chlorine, Phenols, gluteraldehydes.
Define Sterilization:
Complete elimination or destruction of all microorganisms (Including Spores). Steam under pressure, ETO Gas, Various Chemicals.
What are the steps for removing barrier equipment in an Isolation Environment?
Mask (Top to Bottom)
Gown (Fall from shoulders, remove hands from sleeves without touching)
Eyeware / Goggles
Hand Hygiene
What are the three types of transmission?
Define Airborne Precautions:
Nuclei < 5mcm. Measles, chickenpox, pulmonary or laryngeal TB.

Private room with negative-pressure. Mask or respiratory.
Define Droplett precautions.
Dropletts larger than 5mcm. Diptheria, rebella, pneumonia, pneumonic plague.

Private room or cohort clients, mask.
Define Contact Precautions
Direct client or environmental contact.

Private room or cohort clients, gloves, gowns.
Standard Precautions (Tier One)
-Body Fluid
-Non Intact Skin
-Mucous Membrane
With regard to infection control, what are some aspects of a Protective Environment?
-Private Room
-Post precautions on the door according to agency policy
-Keep equipment separate ie thermometer and BP Cuff.
Name four types of PPE:
Personal Protective Equipment:
Eyewear or Face Shields
What is the Key to remember in PPE Removal?
Dirtiest First.
Define Surgical Asepsis, and what could cause contamination.
Sterile technique that eliminates all MO including spthogens and spores!

The sterility becomes contaminated if touched by any object that is not sterile.
Name Four Areas where Surgical Asepsis is practiced:
Major Diagnositcs Areas
The Client Bedside
How is Surgical Asepsis used at the client bedside?
-Intentional Skin Perferations
-IM/SQ/ID injections
-Sites of Trauma or Burns
-Cathaterization / Chest Tube
What should be thought of during preparation of a client for a Surgical Aseptic Procedure?
-Client Cooperation (Dont touch area)(Dont Talk)(Get Mask if Cough)
-Client willingness to comply
Define the high level defination of Surgical Asepsis.
A Sterile Object Remains Sterile only when touched by another sterile object.
*Sterile + Sterile =Sterile
*Sterile + Clean =Contaminated
*Sterile + Contaminated =Contaminated
*Sterile + Questionable =Contaminated
What can be placed in a Sterile Filed?
Only other sterile objects.
Explain how proximity equates to sterile.
Below the waist, or out of vision becomes contaminated.
How does Air affect Sterility?
A Serile object becomes contaminated by prolonged exposure to air.

Avoid excessive movement. Dont talk, laugh, sneeze or cough over a sterile field.
What happens when a sterile surface comes in contact with wet, contaminated surface?
It becomes contaminated by capill action. It should be discarded.
Must the nurse wear a cap during a sterile procedure on the general nursing floor?
What needs to happen with a mast becomes moist?
The nurse must change it because it can transmit diseases.
Define a Sterile Field.
An area free from MO and prepared to receive sterile items. The field is sterile within a 1 inch border.