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52 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Define Growth:
A measurable (quantitative) aspect of individual increase in physical measurements.

(Potter 173)
Define Development:
Occurs gradually over time. Person advances from a lower to higher level of complexity. Capacities are expanded through growth, learning and maturation.(Potter 173)

Growth to full size or maturity, as in the progress of an egg to the adult state. (Tabers)
Define Cephalocaudal
Head-to-toe development of neuromuscular function. (i.e. head grows and is controlled first, then body develops downward)
(Wong 737)

The principle of maturation that states motor development, control, and coordination progress from the head to the feet.
Define Proximodistal
Neuromuscular maturation from a near-to-far direction (Midline to peripheral development). Central nervous system develops faster than peripheral nervous system. (i.e. hand used as a whole before fingers can be manipulated individually).
(Wong 737-738)
Define Differentiation
Process by which early cells and structures are systematically modified and altered to achieve specfici characteristic physical and chemical properties, sometimes used to describe the trend of mass to specific. Developjment from simple to more complex activities.
(Wong 736)
Define Organic Brain Syndrome
Any of a large group of acute and chronic mental disorders associated with brain damage or impaired cerebral function. (Tabers Online)
Define Alzheimer’s disease
Most common form of dementia characterized by brain atrophy and the development of senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the cerebral hemispheres. The cause is unknown, there is difficulty learning and retaining new information, difficulty handling complex tasks especially ones with multiple steps. Problem solving is impaired, there is a change in orientation to self, place and time.(Potter 244)

A chronic, progressive, degenerative cognitive disorder that accounts for more than 60% of all dementias.(Tabers Online)
Define Dementia
Generalized impairment of intellectual function that interferes with social and occupational functioning. Characterized by gradual, progressive, irreversible cerebral dysfunction.
(Potter 244)

A progressive, irreversible decline in mental function, marked by memory impairment and, often, deficits in reasoning, judgment, abstract thought, registration, comprehension, learning, task execution, and use of language.(Tabers Online)
Define Reality Orientation
Communication technique used to make an older person more aware of time, place and person. One should use clocks, calendars and personal belongings frequent reminder of where one is and who one is. This technique is especially useful in acute care settings where routines are thrown off and one is out of ones element.
(Potter 254)

An intervention intended to orient persons with early dementia or delirium.
(Tabers Online)
Define Reminiscence
Recalling the past, using past memories and experiences to bring meaning and understanding to the present and to resolve current conflicts. Reminds older person of coping strategies that were successful for him or her in the past.
(Potter 254)

A form of supportive psychotherapy for elderly patients experiencing depression or loss.(Tabers Online)
Describe how aging affects the Integumentary System
Skin loses resilience & moisture, elastic collagen fibers shrink & become rigid, & the pull of gravity causes wrinkles on face and neck. Spots & lesions may be present on skin. Sun may lead to aging & may cause premalignant & malignant lesions. Examination must rule out melanoma, basal cell carcinoma & Squamous cell carcinoma. Pressure sores are a risk for the frail. Factors include reduced mobility, inactivity, diminished sensory perception, excessive moisture, friction, less fat over bony prominences and poor nutrition.
Describe how aging affects the Head and Neck.
Facial features may appear asymmetrical due to missing teeth or poorly fitting dentures. Vocal changes include a rise in pitch & a loss of power & range. A decline in vision may be due to retinal damage, reduced pupil size, opacities in the lens, or loss of lens elasticity. Presbyopia is a decline in the ability of the yes to accommodate for close, detailed work. There is a reduced ability of the eyes to adjust to light changes & an increased sensitivity to glare. Color vision may be affected as well.
Describe how aging affects hearing.
Auditory changes are often subtle. A common change in hearing acuity is presbycusis, the inability to hear high sounds and consonants like s, sh, & ch. Impacted cerumen is an easily treated cause of diminished hearing.
Describe how aging affects Taste
Taste buds atrophy, which leads to less ability to discern salty, sour, & bitter tastes. The sense of smell & salivary secretion is also reduced.
Describe how aging affects Thorax & lungs
After age 55 respiratory muscle strength begins to decrease. The anteroposterior diameter of the thorax increases. The chest wall becomes stiffer so lung expansion decreases. Osteoporosis may lead to kyphosis.
Describe how aging affects Heart & vascular system
Reduced contractile ability results in decreased cardiac output, which leads to higher HR during stress. More than 50% of older adults have systolic or diastolic hypertension which may lead to heart failure, stroke, renal failure, or peripheral vascular disease. Peripheral pulses may be weaker in lower extremities, causing c/o cold legs.
Describe how aging affects the Breasts
Decreased muscle mass, tone, & elasticity result in smaller and sagging breasts. Gynecomastia, enlarged breasts in men, may be due to medication side effects, hormonal changes, or obesity. Both older men & women are at risk for breast cancer.
Describe how aging affects the Gastrointestinal system & abdomen
Increases in the amount of fatty tissue in trunk results in increased size & protuberance of abdomen. GI changes include slowing of peristalsis & reduced secretions which may lead to food intolerances and delayed gastric emptying. Results may be constipation, flatulence or diarrhea.
Describe how aging affects the Reproductive system
Hormonal changes result in changes in structure & function. Female menopause is related to reduced responsiveness of the ovaries to pituitary hormones & a resultant decrease in estrogen & progesterone levels. There is decreased uterine size, decreased secretions, & atrophy of the lining of the vagina. For men, production of sperm declines, but continues into the 90s. A man's changes in reproductive structure & function do not affect libido, but there is a decrease in testosterone & testicular size.
Describe how aging affects GU in Men.
Enlargement of prostate gland may result in urinary retention, frequency, incontinence, difficulty initiating voiding, and UTIs. Cancer of the prostate is the 2nd most common cause of cancer death in men. 50% of men over age 70 have evidence of prostate cancer, but less than 3% of these men will die of prostate cancer.
Describe how aging affects GU in women.
Older women, especially those who had children, can experience stress incontinence, an involuntary release of urine when they cough, sneeze or lift an object--due to weakened perineal & bladder muscles. Other types of incontinence include urge, overflow, functional, and mixed incontinence. Risk factors for incontinence include age, menopause, diabetes, hysterectomy, stroke and obesity. Although for women over age 60 the estimates of any urine loss is 40% and of daily incontinence 7%-17%, urinary incontinence is an abnormal condition in the older woman.
Describe how aging affects the Musculoskeletal system
Muscle fibers are reduced in size, resulting in decreased muscle mass & strength. Bone mass decreases (more so for women than men), but there is less bone or muscle loss for those who exercise regularly. Postmenopausal women have a greater rate of bone loss than older men, but osteoporosis is also a concern for older men. Shortening of trunk as a result of intervertebral space narrowing, decreased joint mobility, decreased ROM, and enhanced bony prominences also affect the older adult.
Describe how aging affects the Neurological system
The number of neurons begins to decrease in the middle of the 2nd decade and the change can affect all the senses. In addition, the older adult may experience a decreased sense of balance or uncoordinated motor responses. Decreased rate of voluntary or automatic reflexes, decreased ability to respond to multiple stimuli, insomnia, and shorter sleeping periods are also related to the neurological system of the older adult.
Describe Safety Issues as they relate to Newborns
Newborn- Necessary competency in parenting/nurturing. Injury prevention- motor vehicle accidents, drowning, burns, poisoning (lead), bodily damage. (Potter 963)
Define Safety Issues as they relate to Infants
Injuries are a major cause of death during infancy. Parents need to be alerted to aspiration of foreign objects, suffocation, falls, poisoning, burns, motor vehicle injuries, and bodily damage, as well as preventative actions needed to make environment safe for infants.
Describe Safety Issues as they relate to Toddlers
Increased locomotion puts toddlers at high risk for sustaining injuries. Fatal injuries are primarily a result of motor vehicle accidents, drowning and burns. Injury prevention during early childhood, Table 37-3. (Wong, 894)
Describe Saftey Issues as the relate to Preschooler
Communicable diseases.Child maltreatment: child neglect, physical, sexual and emotional abuse.

Health promotion is important: proper nutrition, adequate sleep, proper dental care, injury prevention.
Define Family as used in the TCC Conceptual Framework:
Determined by the person and may include relatives, significant others, and any intimate relationship.
Define HERIDITY as used in the TCC Conceptual Framework
Those aspects of a person that are genetically determined.
Define RELATIVE as used in the TCC Conceptual Framework
Those people to whom one is legally related by marriage, birth or adoption.
Define TEACHING/LEARNING as used in the TCC Conceptual Framework
Ability to incorporate and use information to achieve healthy lifestyle/optimal wellness.
Define SOCIAL INTERACTION as used in the TCC Conceptual Framework:
Ability to establish and maintain relationships.
Define SPIRITUALITY as used in the TCC Conceptual Framework:
Ability to incorporate and use information to achieve healthy lifestyle/optimal wellness.
Define EGO INTEGRITY as used in the TCC Conceptual Framework:
Ability to develop and use skills and behaviors to integrate and manage life experiences.
Define PAIN/COMFORT as used in the TCC Conceptual Framework:
Ability to control internal/external environment to maintain comfort.
Define ACTIVITY/REST as used in the TCC Conceptual Framework:
Ability to engage in necessary/desired activities of life (work or lesiure) and to obtain adequate sleep/rest.
Define SAFETY as used in the TCC Conceptual Framework:
Ability to provide safe, frowth promoting environment.
In Immunology, what does HepB Stand For?
Hepatitis B.

First Dose at Birth, Then 1-4 Months, and 6-18 Months.
In Immunology, what does DTaP Stand For?
Diptheria Tetanus acellular Pertussis.
2 4 6 15-18Months
In Immunology, what does Hib Stand For?
Haemophilus Influenzae type B
In Immunology, what does IPV Stand For?
Inactivated Poliovirus
In Immunology, what does MMR Stand For?
Measles, Mumps, Rubella
In Immunology, what does Varicella Stand For?
Varicella is Chickenpox
In Immunology, what does PCV Stand For?
Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine
In Immunology, what does PPV Stand For?
Pneumococcal Polysaccharide vaccine
Define Learning
The Purposeful acquisition of new knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and skills.
Define Learning Needs.
Learning needs change depending on the clients current health status. This status is dynamic making the need for assessment an ongoing activity.
Potter 461
Describe the Concept of Motivation to Learn.
Nurse asks questions that define the clients motivation. These help determine whether the client is prepared and willing to learn. A lack of motivation seriously threatens the success of the teaching plan.
Describe the consept of ABILITY TO LEARN.
Physcial and cognitive ability to learn can be affected by Temp, Electrolyte levels, SpO2, and blood glucose levels. Look for strength, movement, dexterity, sensory deficits.
Describe how TEACHING ENVIRONMENT affects learning.
Evironment must be conducive to learning.
-Avoid distractions or persisten noise by selecting a quite area.
-Assess Comfort of the Room including Ventilation, temperature, lighting, and furnishings.
-Consider Room Facilities and available equipement.
(Potter 462)
Describe how RESOURCES affect learning.
Nurse should be aware of following resources.
-Family readiness to learn
-Resources in the resources for equipement or building modification.
-Teaching tools such as brochures or posters.
Define the importance of COMPLIANCE in Teaching/Learning.
Compliance is a clients adherence to the prescribed course of therapy. The nuse assesses the clients motivation to learn and what the client needs to know in order to adhear to the prescribed Rx. The nurse also determines interventions that will stimulate learning and positive behavior changes.
(Potter 456)