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244 Cards in this Set

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what causes malocclusion in rabbits?
Hereditary malocclusion in this breed
Dwarf breeds
When does mandibular prognathism (hereditary malocclusion) in rabbits show up?
Doesn't show up until 1 year old: after several litters
How do you prevent malocclusion?
trimming incisors every 2-4 wks
If not fed a diet high in fresh grass hay and herbage this can occur...
molars can get spikes
commonly isolated from abscesses in rabbits
Pasteurella multocida
Why are chronic abscesses hard to cure in rabbits?
Due to lymphopenia and lack of opsonins (Ab or complement) in rabbits
Is lancing and flushing usually curative of abscesses in rabbits
No, not even with antibiotic therapy
Causes include cramped housing, illness and obesity: Swollen, Painful jts are seen
Ulcerative Pododermatitis
MC type of Abscess in rabbits
Perapical abscess
Bacteria are more likely to be cultured at the wall or in the contents of the abcess?
From the wall of the abscess
Tx for abscesses in rabbits
Surgery: remove whole abscess
Topical Tx for Abscesses
Strong Sugar Solutions
Causes Snuffles (rhinitis)
Pasturella multocida
Present in the nasal cavity of rabbits without causing disease
Pasturella multocida
Snuffles charactorized by...
-serous then purulent material coming from nose
-yellow staining under nose
-audible upper resp. noise
Can cause rolling and nystagmus in rabbits
Otitis media caused by Pasterella multocida
Ear mites of rabbits
Psotoroptes canaliculi
Syndromes caused by Pasterella multocida in rabbits
-Genital Infection
-Dacryocystitis (nasolac. duct)
-otitis media
-ocular dz
-Upper resp dz
Ocular dz caused by Pasterella multocida...
Anterior uveitis (progressively enlarging white area in eye)
Anesthetic complication with rabbits
Breath holding
Pain meds in rabbits
Acetylsalicylic acid
Induction agents in rabbits
Ace and Ketamine
Ketamine and valium
Why don't you use atropine in rabbits?
They have atropinesterase
Can cause renal toxicity in rabbits
This occurs in obese female rabbits that develop ulcerations on their feet
Ulcerative pododermatitis
Where specifically does Ulcerative pododermatitis occur?
the plantar surface of the metatarsus
What type of fermentor is a rabbit?
Hind gut fermentor
A rabbit needs this to maintain a healthy GI tract
This species has the largest stomach and cecum of any monogastric animal
Substance made by the cecum that is Rich in nutrients and excreted seperately from the feces
Rabbit consumes this directly from the rectum
Anorexic rabbits can develop this very quickly
Hepatic Lipidosis
Blindness (glacoma) is inherited in this breed of rabbits
New Zealand White
Chronic red eyes in New Zealand White Rabbits leads to
Lens induced uveitis
why does Lens induced uveitis occur?
it is a leakage of lens protiens causing an autoimmune response
What does rabbit urine consist of?
Calcium carbonate
Why is rabbit urine white?
Due to calcium carbonate: rabbits have a unique way of metabolizing calcium: they absorb calcium from the gut in direct proportion to the amnt they consume: when blood calcium exceeds kidney threshold, it spills out into urine
How is the unique way a rabbit metabolizes calcium different from other species?
In others the bile is the primary route of removal
What is the term used for large amounts of calcium carbonate calculi?
Red urine: dark yellow to deep red orange
Normal Porphyrine
Why can rabbits testicles move in and out of the abdominal cavity? (hard to sex males sometimes because of this)
they have large inguinal rings and canals
Why are inguinal hernias rare in rabbits?
Because of their epidermal fat pad
Cause of enlarged uterus in rabbits
Uterine adenocarcinoma
How is the female repro tract of rabbits different from other animals
It has a duplex uterus with two uterine horns and two cervix: no uterine body
Can cause alopecia along the ventrum in rabbits
If not restrained properly, this can occur in rabbits
fracture of lumbar spine
Etiology of walking dandruff in rabbits
Cheyletiella parasitivorax
Tx for walking dandruff
Permethrin Powder
Sites of venipuncture in rabbit
Lateral Saphenous
Etiology of walking dandruff in rabbits
Cheyletiella parasitivorax
tx of Cheyletiella parasitivorax in rabbits
Ivermectin or carbaryl or permethrin powder
dx of Cheyletiella parasitivorax in rabbits
Tape test, fecal floatation
Sites of venipuncture in the rabbit
· Jugular
· Lateral saphenous
· Cephalic
· Auricular
type of virus in rabbits: Myxomatosis
pox virus
causes of Gastric trichobezoars
a. Can be induced by GI stasis caused by diet low in fiber and/or high in starch
b. stress due to stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system
c. Thunderstorms, predator attacks, pain and sx can cause GI stasis
prevention of trichobezoars in rabbits
High fiber diet
cause of pneumonia in a rabbit
Pasteurella multocida
Thermoregulation in a rabbit is achieved by....
(rabbits don't sweat or pant)
why would Acetylpromazine be used in a rabbit to tx heat stroke?
it is a vasodialator
Obligate intracellular protozoan parasite of rabbits
Encephalitozoon cuniculi
where are spores of Encephalitozoon cuniculi shed?
Spores are shed in urine of infected rabbits
A rabbit presents with Muscular weakness/hind leg paralysis, PU/PD, Emaciation, Occasional neurologic signs, Uveitis in rabbits infected in utero, Pitted appearance of kidneys due to areas of fibrosis, and Granulomatous lesions in brain, kidney and occasionally liver
what is the dz?
Encephalitozoon cuniculi
dx of Encephalitozoon cuniculi
E. cuniculi in urine w/ carbol fuchsin stain
tx of Encephalitozoon cuniculi
Albendazole and Fendbendazole in humans and rabbits
etiology of Dermatomycosis in rabbits
Trichophyton mentagrophytes
term for blocked lacrimal duct in rabbits
what dz can ferrets get from humans?
Ferrets are the only domestic animal spp which is susceptible to human influenza – they are often infected by their human owners
causes aplastic anemia in ferrets
Estrogen toxicity
cause of Estrogen toxicity
--Intact female ferrets in prolonged estrus
--Ferrets are induced ovulator, so esturs continues until the ferret is bred or the photoperiod changes (shortened day)
--The high estrogen level causes bone marrow suppression causing a nonregenerative anemia that is eventually fatal
--Any ferret that is in estrus for longer than two weeks in is at risk
a ferret presents with Bilateral symmetrical alopecia, a swollen vulua, along with anorexia and depression.
What is the dz?
tx for hyperestrogenism
1. Take female out of estrus safely including a vasectomized male
2. mechanical stimulation w/ a Q-tip
3. Using HCG or GnRH at least 10 days but not longer than 1 month after estrus onset
4. Ovariohysterectomy – esp if bone marrow suppression signs are obvious
what is significant about giving a blood transfusion in a ferret?
Ferrets do not have a blood type so can receive blood transfusions multiple times from multiple donors
prevention of hyperestrogenism
Prevention is spaying females at 4-6 months old or within 2 weeks of first estrus
what has occured if a spayed female ferret shows signs of hyperestrogenism?
Neutered females who show the above signs have either Adrenal associated toxicity or remnant ovarian tissue
primary pneumonia in ferrets is caused by...
Canine distemper virus or influenza
secondary pneumonia in ferrets is caused by...
Streptococcus zooepidemicus, S. pneumonia, E coli, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, Listeria, Bordetella
lung pattern with pneumonia
alveolar pattern
(air bronchograms)
antibiotics used with pneumonia in ferrets
cephalosporins, chloramphenicol or TMS
a ferret presents with Unilateral or bilateral, serous ocular discharge that quickly becomes purulent, conjunctivitis, erythema, coughing, hyperkeratosis of the foot pads, and CNS signs.
What is the dz?
Canine Distemper
dx of distemper in ferrets
FA Ab test on confjunctival scarping, peripheral blood smear or buffy coat
tx of distemper in ferrets
euthanasia (is 99% fatal)
prevention of distemper in ferrets
Proper vaccination w/ CDV approved for ferrets using chick embryo origin (others can induce dz)
a ferret presents with Melena, lethargy, dehydration, anorexia, and heavy shedding. UA shows Ketonuria
Pregnancy toxemia
tx of Pregnancy toxemia
Immediate C section
a ferret presents with wt loss, hypoglycemia, hind limb weakness, staring off into space, salivation, and seizures. What is the dx?
One of the most common neoplasms in the ferret
most common cause of seizures in a ferret
type of tumor with insulinoma
A pancreatic beta cell tumor
pathophys of insulinoma
Tumor produces high livels of insulin, driving glucose out of bloodstream and into the cells at a rapid rate. As blood glucose level drops the brain becomes deprived of energy which impairs its normal function and muscles become weak.
insulinoma is often seen in conjugation with...
Adrenal neoplasm
tx of insulinoma
surgical removal
why are corticosteriods used to treat insulinoma?
promote hepatic gluconeogneeis and inhibit cellular affinity for insulin
why is diazoxide used to treat insulinoma?
benzothiadiazide diruetic, inhibits insulin secretion and stimulates hepatic gluconeoneisis; adjunct to corticosteroids and prevents Cushings
why should you avoid high doses of pred in an insulinoma ferret?
avoid high doses to prevent iatrogenic Cushing’s dz
a ferret presents with Bilateral, symmetrical alopecia starting at the hind end and progressing forward on the body, pruitis, Atrophy of hind end musculature, swollen vulva, and pot bellied appearance. What is dz?
Adrenal tumor
is an adrenal tumor in ferrets the same as cushings in dogs?
dx of adrenal tumor in ferrets
Elevated androgen and estrogen levels
tests that do not dx adrenal tumor in ferrets
ACTH and dex suppression test are NOT dx
tx of adrenal tumor in ferrets
Surgical Removal
how does mitotane work to tx an adrenal tumor?
selectively destroys zona fasciculata and reticularis of adrenal cortex; may be unresponsive esp in carcinoma
how does O,p DDD work to tx an adrenal tumor?
effectively reduces blood cortisol levels
primary cause of death in aged hamsters
normal hamster urine
why do hampster teeth need to be trimmed
Open rooted incisors
Transmissible ileal hyperplasia in hamsters
Wet Tail
3 etiologies of wet tail
Campylobacter, Colibacillosis, or Cryptosportidia
wet tail is associated with...
stresses such as weaning 3-5 weeks old, changes of environment, malnutrition and overcrowding
sequele to wet tail
Intussception or rectal prolapse, and peritonitis
postmortem lesions seen with wet tail
·Intestines, espec. the ileum, will be congested and edematous
·Gut contents are yellow, mucoid and often bloody
tx of wet tail
·Supportive tx and nursing (fluids, Abs, multivitamins esp Vit B)
3 CS seen with wet tail
a.Watery D+ and soiling of vent
b.Hunched position and is lethargic, anorexic
c.Death from dehydration
2 salmonella sp. assoc with hamsters
·S enteriditis and typhimurium
2 causes of diarrhea in hamsters
Salmonella or Tyzzers (Clostridium piliforme)
do hamsters have scent glands?
Possess two scent glands on either flank
Most noticeable during breeding season
how do you sex a hamster?
Distance between urogenitcal orfice and anus is shorter in the female
purpose of copophragia in hamsters
enabling the hamster to ingest valuable B vitamins formed by microflora of cecum
toxic antibiotics to hamsters
Erythromycin, Penicillin, Lincomycin, Cephalosporin and streptomycin
recommended antibiotics in hamsters
Enrofloxacine, tetracycline, Metronidazole and Neopmycin
why are certain antibiotics toxic to hamsters?
allow proliferation of Clostridium dificile and Lawsoni intercelli
Hibernation in hamsters is caused by
Will hibernate if temp gets below 41°
prevention of hibernation in hamsters
Prevent by keeping temp at 70° for 14 hours/day
mice get this type of mammary tumor
adenocarcinoma (malignant)
rats get this type of mammary tumor
fibroadenomas (benign)
produces porphyrin-rich red substance in rats and mice
Harderian gland
fur mites in rats and mice (3)
Myobia musculi,
Myocoptes musculinis, Radfordin affinis
2 intestinal paratsites of rats and mice
– Spironucleus muris, Giardia muris, affect immunocompromised mice or rats (‘Nude’ rats)
pinworms in rats and mice
Syhacia muris,
Syphacia obvelata, Aspircularis tetraptera,
pinworms in rats and mice cause
rectal prolapse
· Response to stress is the Harerian glands in the eye produce ‘red tears’- prophyrin staining around the eyes and nose and occurs with this dz
Pneumococcal and Pasteurella pneumonia
etiologies assoc with Pneumococcal and Pasteurella pneumonia (4)
Pasteurella pneumotropica, Klebsiella pneumonia, Bordetella brochiseptica, Mycoplasma pulmonis,
Sendai virus
etiology of Sendai virus
Sendai virus causes this body system problem
respiratory problems
main differential for Sendai virus
Mycoplasma pulmonis
·Causes inflammation and edema of cervical salivary glands and lns
·May exhibit red oculonasal discharge from Haverian gland
Sialodacryoadenitis virus
etiology of Sialodacryoadenitis virus
Corona virus
how do you sex guinea pigs?
· Both sexes have two inguinal nipples
· Sow has U shaped crease in ridge between the urethral orifice and anus
guinea pigs presents with: ADR, ruffled fur, hemorrhage into joints and muscles causing stiff posture and lameness: what is dx?
Vitamin C Deficiency
avoid using these antibiotics in guinea pigs
penicillin, erythromycin, lincomycin, bacitracin dihydrostreptomycin, clindamycin and tetracycline
use these antibiotics in guinea pigs
Chloramphenicol, endrofloxacin, TMZ
bacteria assoc with antibiotic toxicity
Clostridium dificile
how is bacterial enteritis caused by giving antibiotics in hamsters?
·Acute cecitis or typhlocolitis when Abs which affect normal flora and allow proliferation of Gram negative or anaerobes
what does antibiotic toxicity cause in guinea pigs
Cause enterotoxemia,
occurs in Heavily pregnant, primaparous sows
pregnancy toxemia
when does pregnancy toxemia occur in guinea pigs
during last two weeks of gestation or first week postpartum
why is Dystocia Common in females bred for the first time after 9 months old
pubic symphysis fusion and the birth canal cannot widen to accommodate the pup
what vitamin deficiency occurs in turtles?
Hypovitaminosis A
why are turtles suceptible to Hypovitaminosis A
· Fat soluble vitamin, so having poor fat reserves means that turtles require a constant low level intake of Vit A in order to avoid deficiencies
why is vitamin A required by the body?
production of healthy epithelia
what does a vit A deficiency result in?
metaplasia and degeneration of epithelial surfaces (conjunctiva, gingiva, pancreatic ducts, renal tubules, skin and lung alveoli)
what are two significant things about lungs in turtles?
·Lungs of turtles are located dorsally just below the carapace and do not possess true pleural membranes
·Inflation is aided by limb movement
cause of pneumonia in turtles
Chlamydia psittci
CS assoc with acute pneumonia
a. gaping of mouth/neck stretching
b. Excessive nasal or oral discharge
c. Cyanosis or weakness
d. Hyperactivity b/c of resp distress
e. Concurrent dz
tx of pneumonia in turtles
Enrofloxacin (Mycoplasma and Chlamydia) , Ampicillin, or Oxytetracycline
CS assoc with chronic pneumonia in turtles
a. Persistent, low level mucous discharge from mouth
b. Cyanosis
c. Genralized weakness
d. Rocking and recurrent mouth opening are seen
radiograph a turtle with pneumonia in these psns
lateral and dorso-ventral radiographs
locate lesion with pneumonia via rads and do this
drill through carapace, and swab lesion and place appropirate Ab directly onto the infection; plug w/ steril Blu-tacâ to allow resp fxn to be continued
turtles carry this dz that can infect humans
a. Unsuitable mineral and vitamins in the diet (such as lettuce only)
b. Feeding high protein diet esp if low in Ca
c. Unsuitable artificial light source decreasing Vit D3 activation
all cause this...
Soft shell Dz (Nutritional osteodystrophy)
ideal Ca:Ph ratio is
Ca:Ph is 4-6 to 1
Often a result of bacterial infection (pneumonia, ulcerative shell dz or abscess reaching the blood stream)
6 signs of septicemia in a turtle
c.Erthematous flush to plastron and carapace
d.Secondary jaundice
f.Petechial hemorrhages of MM
tx of septicemia in turtles
enrofloxacine, oxytetracycline, Ampilcillis, fludi therapy, maintain at body temp
shedding of keratinized skin and is hormonally mediated in snakes
Characterized by early petechia in oral cavity that developes to caseous material in snakes
Ulcerative stomatitis
etiology of Ulcerative stomatitis
Aeromonas and Pseudomonas
tx of Ulcerative stomatitis
·Debridement, irrigationa nd aniseptics and/or Abs is therapy
·Vit A & C supplementation is recommended
Respiratory infections in snakes are common and are influenced by....
parasitism, unfavorable environmental temps, unsanitary conditions, concurrent dz and malnutrition
CS with pneumonia in snakes
Open mouth breathing, dyspnea, nasal discharge
etiology of pneumonia in snakes
Aeromonas and Pseudomonas
Common cause of death in snakes
·May be preceded by trauma, local abscesses, parasitism or environmental stress
assoc with septicemia in snakes
Aeromonas and Pseudomonas
Aeromonas may be transmitted by...
snake mite Ophionyssus natricis)
6 CS of septicemia in snakes
a. Resp distress
b. Lethargy
c. Convulsions
d. Incoordination
e. Petechia may be found on ventral abdomen
f. Chelonians (turtles) show erythemia of plastron
bacteria assoc with enteric dz
a. Shigella
b. Salmonella
c. Yersinia
d. Campylobacter jejuni
e. E coli, Pseudomonas, Aerobacter
may be intermittant/asymptomatic carriers of previous bacteria causing enteric dz
major problem in primates
primates are prone to this vitamin deficiency
Vitamin C
commercial monkey diets contain vitamin C that is only stable for this long
Vit C that is stable for 3 months
supplemental sources for vitamin c in primates
citrus fruits
All macaques are considered to be potential shedders of this...
Herpesvirus simiae (herpesvirus B)
herpes simplex is transmissible to....
herpes T is transmissible to.....
humans and owl monkeys
how is herpes B transmitted to humans?
monkey bites or scratches
signs of herpes in monkeys
-May be asymptomatic in monkeys
-May have blisters or ulcers in mouth
-Vesicles at bite site
signs of herpes in humans
a. Can cause fatal encephalitis and encephalomyelitis
b. High CFR (70%)
tx of herpes B
Many chimpanzees transmit this virus?
Hepatitis A virus
Heptatitis A virus causes
infectious hepatitis
why shouldn't you rely on CS to dx TB in monkeys?
b/c can appear healthy and have extensive miliary dz involving thoracic and abdominal organs
very sensitive to TB
Old World Monkeys (Rhesus monkey)
mandatory in monkeys
TB testing
where do you test for TB in monkeys at?
the upper eyelid or shaved abdominal skin and examine at 24, 48, and 72 hours
why can't you do chest rads to dx TB in monkeys like you can in humans?
Radiography of the chest may be unreliable since lesions rarely calcify or caviate as they do in man
tx for all monkeys that react positive to TB
effective tuberculostat for valuable, endangered primates (great apes) but may suppress skin test reaction
usually occurs in Newly imported primates
Rubella (Measles)
causes Nonpruritic, exanthematous, rash on the chest and lower portions of the body
measles can also cause these three things
a. Interstitial giant cell pneumonia
b. Rhinitis
c. Conjuncitivits
what can you vaccinate baby monkeys with to prevent measles?
human measles vaccine
parvo virus in the mink resulting in immune complex formation and deposition
Aleutian Disease
MC bacteria causing intestinal dz in Guinea pigs
require dust baths to maintain healthy coat and skin
how do you catch a Chinchilla?
grab by tail
don't grab this by the tail...
Have an absolute requirement for Vitamin C
Guinea Pig
if not Vitamin C in guinea pigs what happens?
scurvy: hemmorrhage into joints
Gestation in a guinea pig?
68 days
Genetic predisposition for epilepsy
precocious young (fully haired and eyes open) in what?
Guinea Pig
must breed a guinea pig by this age or the pelvic symphysis fuses and results in dystocia
8 months of age
why don't you house guinea pigs with rabbits?
The rabbits can give the guinea pigs Bordatella bronchioseptica.
why don't you use pine shavings for bedding with rodents?
it can induce hepatic microsomal enzyme systems
mite causing otits externa in rabbits
Psoroptes cuniculi
Where are rabbits prone to getting hairballs stuck?
the pylorus because it is small
vitamin present in cecal pellets of rabbits
Vitamin B
spay female rabbits to prevent this (other than pregnancy)
uterine adenocarcinoma
rabbits reach sexual maturity at what age?
4-5 months
gestation length in a rabbit
30-33 days
do rabbits whelp a litter?
no, it is called kindle in rabbits
rabbit syphillus
this can occur on the face of rabbits kept outdoor
unique of rabbits repro system
they have a double cervix
Snuffles in rabbits
MC crystal in rabbit's urine
calcium oxalate
cause of torticollis in rabbits?
otitis media caused by pasturella
Wet tail in mice and rats caused by
Bacillus piliformes
Lifespan of ferret
4 years
unique of renal dz in ferrets
creatinine doesn't increase in ferrets
Green slime dz in ferrets
Coronavirus enteritis
Epizootic Catarrhal Enteritis
repro pattern of ferret
Induced ovulators
Seasonal polyestrus
BM suppression, pancytopenia, bilaterally symetrical alopecia, discharge, and non-regenerative anemia in ferrets
Estrogen Toxicity from prolonged estrus (female who isn't spayed will remain in heat until bred)
this dx test doesn't work in ferrets with adrenal dz because cortisol levels are unaffected
ACTH stim test
right adrenal is on...
caudal vena cava
tx for adrenal dz in ferret
mitotane and surgery
ACTH agonist that stops secretion from the pituitary
tx of insulinoma in ferret
does insulinoma met?
site of lymphoma in a ferret
cranial mediastinum
tx of lymphoma in ferret
causes vasculitis in mink
Aleutian Mink Dx (parvo)
cutaneous nematode that causes excoriation and erosion on dorsal cervical skin
MC cardic dz in ferrets
DCM (HCM is rare)