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44 Cards in this Set

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What were medieval scientists called?
Natural philosophers
Describe the Ptolemaic conception. Who supported it?
The universe was seen as a series of concentric spheres with a fixed or motionless earth at its center. Composed of the material substances of earth, air, fire, and water, the earth was imperfect and constantly changing. The "perfect" heavenly bodies consisted of a non-material, incorruptible "quintessence." Aristotle and Christian theology supported this view.
Nicolaus Copernicus
(1473-1543) Author of the posthumously published "On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres". Created the heliocentric or sun-centered conception of the universe.
Tycho Brahe
(1546-1601) Worked in the Uraniborg Castle, on an island near Copenhagen, granted to him by his patron, King Frederick II. Second patron= Emperor Rudolf II. Spent twenty years compiling precise astronomical observations. Rejected the Ptolemaic conception. Took on an assistant by the name of Kepler.
Johannes Kepler
(1571-1630) Came up with the three laws of planetary motion. Published a book called the New Astronomy in 1609, which contained the first two laws. First law- Orbits of the planets were elliptical. Second law- the speed of a planet is greater when it is closer to the sun (perigee) than when it is farther away (apogee). Thrid law- the square of a planet's period of revolution is proportional to the cube of its average distance from the sun.
Galileo Galilei
(1564-1642) Used a telescope to disprove that the universe was composed of quintessence. Published the Starry Messenger in 1610. Supported the heliocentric model. "The intention of the Holy Scripture is to teach us not how the heavens go, but how to go to Heaven." In 1632, he published Dialogue on the Two Chief World Systems: Ptolemaic and Copernican. Discovered the principle of inertia- a body in motion continues in motion unless deflected by an external force.
(1642-1727) Invented The Calculus, a mathematical means of calculating rates of change. Authored the Principia, which was the last major book to be written in Latin. Made president of the Royal Society in 1703. Buried in Westminster Abbey. "If I have seen farther than others, it was because I was standing on the shoulders of giants." Created the universal law of gravitation.
Greek physician who lived during the second century C.E. Relied on animal dissection to learn anatomy. Held the doctrine of four bodily humors: blood, yellow bile, phlegm, and black bile. Disease was the result of an imbalance of humors.
(1493-1541) "Monarcha medicorum" Disease was caused by a chemical imbalance that could be treated chemically. "Like cures like" "Homicide physician"
Andreas Vesalius
(1514-1564) In 1543, he published On the Fabric of the Human Body. Contained superior illustrations of human anatomy.
William Harvey
(1578-1657) Published On the Motion of the Heart and Blood in 1628. Demonstrated that the heart was the beginning point of circulation of blood in the body.
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
(1632-1723) Dutch. Built over 400 microscopes. "Father of microbiology"
Robert Boyle
(1627-1691) Author of The Sceptical Chemist. Boyle's Law- the volume of a gas varies with the pressure exerted on it.
Antoine Lavoisier
(1743-1794) Invented a system of naming the chemical elements. Founder of modern chemistry.
Margaret Cavendish
(1623-1673) Author of Observations upon Experimental Philosophy and Grounds of Natural Philosophy. Critical of the growing belief that through science, humans would be masters of nature.
Maria Sibylla Merian
(1647-1717) Dutch entomologist. Published a very detailed book about insect life.
Maria Winkelmann
(1670-1720) German astronomer. Discovered the Comet of 1702. Was rejected by the Berlin Academy because of gender.
Querelles des femmes
"Arguments about women" Attempt to illustrate the biological superiority of men. For example, females tended to have a larger pelvic area, and female skulls were portrayed as being smaller than male skulls.
(1596-1650) Rationalist- belived that through reason, rather than traditional sources of knowledge, people could discover basic truths. Humans are born with innate knowledge. "Father of modern philosophy" Deductive method- proceed from the general to the particular. Author of the Discourse on Method (1637) and Meditations of First Philosophy (1641). "Cogito ergo sum" Ontological Argument- the existence of God. Cartesian dualism- separation of mind and matter.
Francis Bacon
(1561-1626) Author of Novum Organum (1620)and The New Atlantis. Scientific method. Built on inductive principles- proceeding from the particular to the general. "Knowledge is power" Empiricism.
The Scientific Societies
English Royal Society; French Royal Academy of Sciences; Berlin Academy. Science should proceed as a cooperative venture. Scientific journals were published.
Benedict de Spinoza
(1632-1677) Philosophy of pantheism, or monism- all that is is God.
Blaise Pascal
(1623-1662) Published Pensees (Thoughts). Tried to convert rationalists to Christianity. Offered Pascal's wager.
The belief that God, or a group of gods, is identical with the whole natural world; pantheism comes from Greek roots meaning “belief that everything is a god.”
Belief in a God who created the world but has since remained indifferent to it.
Thomas Kuhn
Paradigm shift
Immanuel Kant
Motto of the Enlightenment- "Dare to know!"- have the courage to use your own intelligence.
Bernard de Fontenelle
(1657-1757) Pushlished the Plurality of Worlds- cosmology and the basic fundamentals of the new mechanistic universe.
Pierre Bayle
(1647-1706) Skeptic. Argued for complete religious toleration. Applied textual criticism to the Bible. Author of the Historical and Critical Dictionary.
James Cook
Traveled to New Zealand and Australia. Published an account of his journey- Travels.
Theory of knowledge.
John Locke
Published the Essay Concerning Human Understanding in 1690. Every person was born with a tabula rasa, or blank mind. Society was very positive about this because it stated that if one's environment were to change, they could change themselves.
(1689-1755) Published the Persian Letters in 1721. Published The Spirit of the Laws, his most famous work, in 1748. Attempted to understand the natural laws that govern the social relationships of human beings. Discussed the separation of powers and checks and balances. These principles were incorporated into the U.S. Constitution.
(1694-1778) Books: Philosophic Letters on the English (1733); Treatise on Toleration (1763); Candide (1759). Had an affair with Emilie du Chatelet, who published her own translation of Newton's Principia. Argued for religious toleration- Calas Affair. "Ecrasez l'infame"- "Crush the infamous thing." Deism- Newtonian world machine.
(1713-1784) Materialistic conception of life. 28-volume Encyclopedia "changed the general way of thinking."
David Hume
(1711-1776) Scottish philosopher. "Treatise on Human Nature". Social sciences.
Francois Quesnay
(1694-1774) Leader of the physiocrats. Tried to discover the natural economic laws that governed human society. Land was the only source of wealth. The natural economic forces of supply and demand made it imperative that individuals should be left free to pursue their own self-interest. Laissez-faire.
Adam Smith
(1723-1790) Scottish philosopher. Published The Wealth of Nations in 1776. Free trade was a fundamental economic principle. Labor theory of value- labor constituted the true wealth of a nation. Invisible hand- natural force that guides free market capitalism through competition through scarce resources. Laid the foundation for economic liberalism.
Baron Paul d'Holbach
(1723-1789) German aristocrat who preached a doctrine of strict atheism and materialism. Wrote System of Nature in 1770- argued that everything in the universe consisted of matter in motion.
Marie-Jean de Condorcet
(1743-1794) French philosophe. Author of The Progress of the Human Mind. Hid from the French Revolution during the reign of terror.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
(1712-1778) "Discourse on the Origins of the Inequality of Mankind"- state of nature= where humans were happy, ruined by the concept of owning land. "The Social Contract," published in 1762. An agreement on the part of an entire society to be governed by its general will. Participatory, or direct, democracy. Also wrote "Emile" in 1762, which was a treatise on education- led to Romanticism.
Mary Astell
(1666-1731) "A Serious Proposal to the Ladies" (1697) Argued that women needed to become better educated. Later wrote "Some Reflections upon Marriage," where she argued for the equality of the sexes in marriage. "If all men are born free, how is it that all women are born slaves?"
Mary Wollstonecraft
(1759-1797) Founder of modern European feminism. In 1792, wrote "Vindication of the Rights of Woman"- pointed out two contradictions in the views of women held by Enlightenment thinkers. To argue that women must obey men was contrary to the beliefs of the same individuals that a system based on arbitrary power of monarchs over their subjects was wrong.
Edward Gibbon
Wrote the 6-volume "Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire," which argued that Christianity was a major reason for Rome's eventual collapse. Historiography.