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47 Cards in this Set

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Surfaces along which rocks break and move; rocks on either side of a fault move in different directions relative to the fault surface.
The movement of the ground, caused by waves of energy released as rocks move along faults.
Normal Fault
A pull apart "tension" fracture in rocks, where rocks that are above the fault surface drop downward in relation to rocks that are below the fault surface like this:
Reverse Fault
A compression fracture in rocks, where rocks that are above the fault surface are forced up over rocks that are below the fault surface like this:
Strike - Slip Fault
A break in rocks due to shearing forces, where rocks on either side of the fault move past each other without much upward or downward movement.
Seismic Wave
In an earthquake, the energy waves that move outward from the earthquake focus and make the ground quake.
The point in Earth's interior where earthquake energy is released.
Primary Wave
Waves of energy, released during an earthquake, that travels through Earth by causing particles in rocks to compress and stretch apart in the direction of the wave.
Secondary Waves
Waves of energy, released during an earthquake, that travel through Earth by causing particles in rocks to move at right angles to the direction of the wave.
The point on Earth's surface directly above an earthquake's focus.
Surface Wave
Wave of energy, released during an earthquake, that reach Earth's surface and travel outward from the epicenter in all directions; travel through Earth by giving rock particles an elliptical and side to side motion.
Inner Core
A dense, solid center of Earth, formed mostly of iron and nickel.
Outer Core
The liquid layer of Earth's core that surrounds the solid Inner Core and is comprised of iron and nickel.
The thickest layer of Earth; that lies between the Outer Core and the Crust and is described as plastic like; formed mostly of silicon, oxygen, magnesium, and iron.
The outermost layer of Earth, varying in thickness from more than 60 KM to less than 5 KM.
Moho Discontinuity
The boundary between Earth's crust and the mantle; the seismic waves travel faster below the Moho and slower above it.
A scientist who studies earthquakes and seismic waves.
An instrument used by Seismologists to record Primary, Secondary and Surface waves from earthquakes.
In earthquakes studies, a measure of the energy released by an earthquake; the Richter Scale is used to describe earthquake magnitude.
An ocean wave in (seismic sea wave) that begins over an earthquake focus and can reach 30 M high.
A vent in Earth's surface that often forms a mountain built of lava and volcanic ash, which erupts and builds up.
In volcanic regions, an opening in Earth's surface through which can flow lava, ash, cinders, smoke, and steam.
A steep-walled depression at the top of a volcanic vent.
Pacific Ring of Fire
The area around the Pacific Plate where volcanoes and earthquakes are common due to tectonic movement.
Hot Spot
Areas in Earth's mantle that are hotter than the neighboring areas forming melted rock that rises toward the crust.
Geothermal Energy
Thermal energy from magma bodies inside Earth that can be used to produce electricity with very little environmental pollution.
Hot Dry Rock (HDR)
A new technology in which heat from Earth's internal hot dry rock material is used to generate energy.
Shield Volcano
A broad volcano with gently slopping sides, built by quiet eruptions of fluid basaltic lava, which spreads out in flat layers; example: the Hawaiian Islands.
Lava that is blasted into the air by violent volcanic eruptions and solidifies as it falls to the ground as ash, cinders, and volcanic bombs.
Cinder Cone
A type of volcano in which tephra (cinders) piles up into a steep-sided cone.
Composite Volcano
A type of volcano built of silicarich lava and tephra layers accumulated from repeating alternating cycles of tephra eruptions and lava eruptions.
The largest intrusive igneous rock bodies that form when magma cools and solidifies under ground and stops rising to the surface.
An intrusive igneous rock body formed when magma is squeezed into a horizontal crack and solidifies under ground.
Volcanic Neck
Solid igneous core of event that remains after the outer layers of lave and tephra have been eroded away from an extinct volcano.
A large opening formed at the top of a volcano when a crater collapses into the vent following an eruption.
Continental Drift
A hypothesis
Continental Drift
A hypothesis proposed by Alfred Wegener, which states that continents have moved horizontally around the globe, over time, to reach their current locations.
The name Alfred Wegener gave to large land mass, made up of all continents, that he believed existed before it broke apart to form the present continents.
Plate Tectonics
The theory that Earth's crust and upper mantle (Lithosphere) are broken into sections, called plates, that slowly move around on the mantle.
In plate tectonics, a section of Earth's Lithosphere (crust and upper mantle) that moves around on the mantle.
The rigid, outermost layer of Earth, about 100 KM thick, composed of the crust and part of the mantle.
The plasticlike layer below the Lithosphere in Earth's mantle.
Divergent Boundary
In Plate Tectonics, the boundary between two plates that are diverging, or moving away from each other.
Convergent Boundary
In Plate Tectonics, the boundary between two plates that are converging, or moving toward each other.
Subduction Zone
In Plate Tectonics, the area where an ocean-floor plate collides with a continental plate, and the denser ocean plate sinks under the less dense continental plate.
Transform Fault
The layer of Earth's atmosphere closest to the ground; contains clouds, smog, weather and 75% of the atmospheric gases.
Convention Current
The driving force of Plate Tectonics in which hot, plasticlike material from the mantel rises to the Lithosphere, moves horizontally, cools, and sinks back to the mantle.