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202 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Adrenaline
A hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla; also called apinephrine.
Algae
Simple plants containing chlorophyll.
Amino Acid
An organic compound containing an amino and a carboxyl group; the building blocks of proteins.
Amphibians
A class of vertebrates capable of living both in water and on land. The larval forms have gills and the adults have lungs; includes frogs and toads.
Angiosperms
The class of flowering plants, with seeds inclosed in fruit.
Antibiotic
A substance that destroys a microorganism or inhibits its growth.
Antibody
A substance produced by the body to combat the injurious effect of a foreign substance (antigen).
Aorta
The main artery leaving the heart.
Arachnids
A class of arthropods with no antennae and four pairs of legs; includes spirders, scorpions, ticks, mites, and king crabs.
Arthropods
The phylum of segmented invertebrates with joined appendages and an extoskeleton
Bacteria
Unicellular organisms without a distinct nucleus and usually without chlorophyll
Bile
A yellowish-green fluid that helps in the digestion of fats.
Budding
Asexual reproduction by the splitting of a new organism from the parent.
Capillary
The smallest blood vessel that carries blood between an artery and a vein
Carbon cycle
The exchange of carbon between living things and their environment.
Cell
The basic unit of organic structure and life.
Cellulose
The woody tissue of plants.
Chordates
The phylum characterized by a spinal chord; includes the vertebrates.
Chromosome
A body in the cell nucleus that is the bearer of genetic information.
Cross-pollination
The transfer of pollen from one plant to a flower on another plant
Crustaceans
Arthropods with gills and two pairs of antennae like lobsters and crabs.
Cytoplasm
The substance of the cell outside the nucleus.
DNA
The compound in the chromosomes that stores genetic information as a molecular code.
Dominant
The one of two alternative genetic traits that is displayed in a heterozygous individual.
Ecology
The study of organisms and their environment.
Embryo
An organisms in the early stages of development.
Enzyme
A protein that serves as an organic catalyst for metabolic reactions.
Evolution
The modification of life forms with the passage of time.
Exoskeleton
A hard, jointed case outside the fleshy tissues of an animal.
Fertilization
The union of gametes to form a zygote.
Fossil
Any naturally preserved remains of ancient life.
Fungi
Plants that lack chlorophyll; molds, mushrooms and yeasts.
Gamete
A sex cell.
Gene
A unit of heredity located on the chromosome.
Germination
The sprouting of a seed.
Gymnosperms
A class of vascular plants bearing seeds in cones.
Homology
The similarity of body structures of different organisms, due to common ancestry; the structures may not have the same function. A bat's wing is homologous to a squirrel's foreleg.
Hormone
A chemical substance that regulates body processes.
Insulin
A hormone produced by the pancreas, which regulates the body's utilization of sugar.
Mammals
A class of warmblooded vertebrates possessing hair and feeding their young milk by means of mammary glands.
Meiosis
The mode of cell division that produces gametes, each with one half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell.
Metabolism
The chemical processes within an organism.
Mitosis
Cell division with chromosome duplication, forming offspring cells with the same number of chromosomes as the parent cell; cell splitting.
Mutation
An inheritable change in a gene.
Natural selection
The survival of the best-adapted organism.
Nucleus
The central part of a cell, containing the chromosomes and controlling cellular activities.
Organ
A group of cells or tissues functioning as a whole.
Ovum
An egg; a female gamete.
Parasite
An organism that lives in or on another organism, deriving food at the expense of its host.
Pasteurization
The killing of microorganisms in milk by heating it to 145 degrees for 30 minutes.
Photosynthesis
The production of carbohydrates by green plants in the presense of light.
Phylum
A major group of animals or plants; the main division of a kingdom
Plasma
The liquid part of the blood.
Pollination
Fertilization by the transfer of pollen from an anther to a stigma.
Protein
An organic compound made up of amino acids.
Protoplasm
A general term for the living matter of the cell.
Recessive
The one of two alternative genetic traits that is masked in a heteroxygous individual.
Respiration
Biological oxidation.
RNA
A substance in the cell with the function of making proteins.
Sexual
Reproduction involving the union of an egg and sperm.
Symbiosis
The close living association of organisms of different species in which both benefit.
Taxonomy
The classification of organisms.
Trait
An inherited characteristic.
Transpiration
The evaporation of water from plants.
Tropism
A growth movement in a plant in response to an environmental stimulus.
Vaccine
A fluid contraining dead disease germs injected into an animal to produce immunity.
Vertebrates
Chordates characterized by a well-developed brain, a backbone, and usually two pairs of limbs; includes the fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals.
Alluvium
Loose sediment deposited by a stream.
Aquifer
A bed of rock permeable to underground water.
Atmosphereic pressure
The pressure exerted by the weight of the air lying directly above the area; at sea level, about 15 pounds per square inch.
Basalt
An igneous rock formed from lava.
Cloud
A collection of tiny water or ice droplets sufficiently numerous to be seen.
Coal
A rock composed of partly decayed and compressed plant material.
Conglomerate
A sedimentary rock consisting of pebbles cemented together.
Continental drift
The hypothesis of continents moving laterally.
Crust
The thin outer zone of the earth above the mantle.
Cyclone
A low pressure area around which winds blow counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere.
Delta
A triangular deposite of sediment at the mouth of a river.
Erosion
The removal of rock debris by water, ice and wind.
Evaporation
The process by which a liquid changes to a gas; specifically, when water changes to water vapor.
Extrusive
Igneous rock of volcanic origin.
Fault
A planar break in rock along which displacement has occured.
Fold
Bent or warped rock layers.
Front
The boundary between two air masses of different temperature; a common site for cloud formation and precipitation.
Geothermal energy
Heat obtained from hot water or steam within the earth.
Igneous
Rock formed by the solidification of molten rock material.
Intrusive
Igneous rock crystallized beneath the surface of the earth.
Karst
Pitted topography due to solution of limestone.
Laterite
Iron rich soil caused by tropical weathering.
Lava
Molten rock extruded from a volcano.
Limestone
Sedimentary rock composed of calcium carbonate.
Lithification
The process by which sediments are consolidated into sedimentary rock.
Lithology
Rock type.
Magma
Molten rock within the earth.
Mantle
The zone of the earth between the core and the crust.
Metamorphic
Rock formed by the transformation, under high temperature and pressure, of older sedimentary or igneous rock.
Mineral
A naturally occuring inorganic chemical compound.
Palentology
The science of fossil life.
Permafrost
Ground that is frozen throughout the year.
Petroleum
A liquid fuel from the transformation of plant and animal remains.
Plutonic
Igneous rock that has crystallized beneath the earth's surface, as opposed to volcanic rock.
Precipitation
Any form of water, whether liquid or solid particles, that falls from the atmosphere; rain, sleet, snow, or hail.
Rainbow
A circular arc of colored bands produced by the refraction and reflection of sunlight by a sheet of raindrops. The sun must be behind the observer.
Sedimentary
Rock formed by the deposition at the earth's surface.
Specific gravity
Relative density; the density of a substance divided by the density of water, which therefore has a specific gravity of 1.
Stalactite
A cone of calcareous rock hanging from the roof of a cavern.
Stalagmite
A pillar of calcareous rock rising from the floor of a cavern.
Strata
Layers of sedimentary rock; the singular is stratum.
Stratosphere
The atmosphere shell above the troposhere; the stratosphere extends from 6 to 30 miles above the earth's surface.
Syncline
The trough of a rock fold.
Tectonic
Refers to movements of the earth's crust.
Troposphere
the lowest six miles of the atmosphere, characterized by temperature decreasing with height.
Water Table
The upper limit of groundwater, below which all pores in the rocks are filled with water.
Weathering
The physical and chemical destruction of rock by the atmosphere.
Acid
A compound that yields hydrogen ions in solution.
Alloy
A metal composed of two or more metallic elements.
Atom
The smalled particle of matter that cannot be subdivided by chemical reactions.
Atomic number
The number of protons in an atomic nucleus; the different chemical elements have different atomic numbers.
Base
A compound that yields hydroxyl ions in solution.
Boyle's law
The volume of a gas varies inversely with pressure.
Carbon dioxide
CO2 is a colorless, noncombustible gas under normal conditions.
Catalyst
A substance that accelerates a chemical reaction, without itself being a reactant.
Charles' law
The volume of a gas varies directly with temperature.
Combustion
Rapid oxidation that releases heat and light.
Compound
A substance formed by the chemical union of several chemical elements.
Decomposition
A chemical reaction in which a compound is broken down into simpler compounds or elements.
Density
Mass per unit volume of a substance.
Diffusion
The mixing of different substances, commonly in a liquid or gas.
Distillation
The process of purification in which an impure substance is heated vapors, which are collected and condensed.
Electron
A negatively charged, subatomic particle; electrons form a cloud around the atomic nucleus. Electron movement constitutes electrical current.
Element
A substance that cannot be decomposed to simpler substances.
Evaporation
A change in state from a solid or liquid to gas.
Freezing point
the temperature at which a liquid changes to a solid.
Hydrocarbons
Compounds of carbon and hydrogen.
Hydrolisis
Chemical decomposition of a compound by reaction with water.
Ion
A charged atom or group of atoms formed by the gain or loss of electrons.
Isotope
Isotopes of an element have the same number of protons and show the same chemical behavior, but they differ in the number of nuclear neutrons and thus in a atomic weight; isotopes may be stable or radioactive.
Litmus
Paper that turns red in acid and blue in alkaline solution.
Mixture
Substances mixed without a chemical reaction; the substances can be in any proportion.
Molecule
The smallest particle of a compound, composed of several bonded atoms.
Neutron
A subatomic particle of zero charge that occurs in the atomic nucleus.
Organic Compound
A compound with interconnected carbon atoms.
Oxidation
Addition of oxygen to a substance.
pH
A number indication the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution. A pH of 7 is neutral, less than 7 is acidic, and greater than 7 is alkaline (base).
Proton
A subatomic particle with a positive charge, occuring in the atomic nucleus.
Saturated
Describes a solution that contains as much solute as possible.
Solute
The substance dissolved in a solution.
Solvent
The pure liquid within a solution.
Sublimination
The change from a solid to a gas, without an intermediate liquid.
Synthesis
The formation of a compound by combining elements or simpler compounds.
Absolute zero
The lowest possible temperature, equal to -273 degrees C or -459 degrees F
Buoyancy
The upward force on an object immersed in a fluid.
Calorie
A unit of measurement of energy; the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of water by 1 degree C.
Capillarity
The ability of liquids to rise in very tubes.
Centrifugal
Toward the perimeter.
Centripetal
Toward the center.
Chain reaction
Occurs when the fission of one atom causes the fission of other atoms.
Conduction
Transfer of heat or electricity.
Conservation of energy
Energy may be changed from one form to another, but it cannot be created or destroyed.
Density
Mass per unity volume.
Doppler effect
The apparent change of pitch due to differing motion of the sounding source and a listener.
Electric current
The flow of electrons; a direct current (DC) flows in one direction, which an alternating current (AC) periodically reverses the direction of flow.
Energy
The ability to perform work; kinetic energy is due to a body's motion, whereas potential energy is due to a body's position.
Fission
The splitting of an atomic nucleus into several lighter nuclei.
Fusion
Nuclear fusion is the union of atomic nuclei to a heavier nucleus.
Gravitiation
The attraction of bodies because of their masses.
Half-life
The time required for the radioactivity of a substance to drop to half its original level.
Heat
Kinetic energy of molecular motion.
Hypothesis
A tentative explanation of a phenomenon.
Inertia
The ability of a body to resist acceleration and continue at rest or moving with uniform velocity.
Mass
The quantity of matter; the measure of inertia.
Momentum
The product of mass and velocity; the conservation of momentum is a fundamental law of nature.
Photon
A particle of light energy.
Pitch
The frequency of a sound wave.
Prism
A triangular piece of glass used to disperse white light into a spectrum.
Radioactivity
The spontaneous decay of an atomic nucleus with the emission of alpha particles, beta particles, or gamma rays.
Refraction
The bending of a light wave at the boundary between two substances.
Relativity
The principle that the laws of physics are the same for any two observers, whatever their relative motion.
Spectrum
The visible spectrum is the band of colors from the dispersal of while light; the electromagnetic spectrum is the total range of frequencies for electromagnetic waves, including radio and light waves.
Temperature
The average kinetic energy of a group of molecules; it determines the direction of heat flow.
Thermodynamics
The study of heat energy
Volt
A unit of measurement of electric potential; the sound of work necessary to move the charge.
Watt
A unit of measurement of electrical power, the rate at which electrical energy is dissipated.
Weightlessness
A condition where accelerating forces precisely offset one another.
Work
The product of force and distance; it measures the action performed on an object.
Asteroid
A minor planet or planetary fragment; most of the thougsands of known asteroids are between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter.
Cluster
A concentration of starts; some globular clusters contrain thousands of stars.
Comet
A diffuse body that glows with a prominent tail when its orbit brings it near the sun.
Constellation
An aparent group of stars.
Eclipse
The obscuring of light from a celestial body by the passage of another body between it and the observer.
Galaxy
An astronomical system composed of billions of stars; galaxies are classified as spiral, elliptical, and irregular.
Latitude
Refers to the degrees north or south of the equator.
Light-year
The distance light trtavels in one year, about 600000000000000 miles.
Longitude
Refers to the degrees east or west of the prime meridian at Greenwhich, England.
Luminosity
Te intrinsic brightness of a star relative to the brightness of the sun.
Meteorite
A rock from interplanetary space found on the earth's surface.
Milky way
The spiral galaxy to which our solar system belongs.
Nebular
A cloud or dust in interstellar space.
Quasar
Quasi-stellar radio source; a distant object with extraordinary luminosity.
Star
A large, hot, glowing body of gases.
Sunspot
A darker patch observed on the surface of the sun.
Tide
The rise and fall of the ocean due to the gravitational attraction by the moon and sun.