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89 Cards in this Set

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CONTINENTAL DRIFT
hypothesis stating that the continents once formed a single landmass, broke up and drifted to their present locations.
PANGAEA
Single landmass thought to have been the origin of all continents.
PANTHALASSA
Giant ocean surrounding Pangaea.
MID-ATLANTIC RIDGE
Undersea mountain range with a steep, narrow valley along its center.
MID-OCEAN RIDGE
System of undersea mountain ranges that wid around the earth.
SEAFLOOR SPREADING
Movement of the ocean floor away from either side of a mid-ocean ridge.
PLATE TECTONICS
Theory that the lithosphere is made up of plates that float on the asthenosphere and that the plates posibly are moved by convection currents.
CONTINENTAL CRUST
Material that makes up landmasses.
LITHOSPHERE
Thin outer shell of the earth consisting of the crust and the rigid upper mantle.
ASTHENOSPHERE
Zone of mantle beneath the lithosphere that consists of slowly flowing solid rock.
DIVERGENT BOUNDARY
Boundary formed by two lithospheric plates that are moving apart.
RIFT VALLEY
Steep, narrow valley formed as lithospheric plates separate.
CONVERGENT BOUNDARY
Border formed by the direct collision of two lithospheric
plates
SUBDUCTION ZONE
Region where one lithospheric plate moves under another.
OCEAN TRENCH
Deep valley in the ocean floor that forms along a subduction zone.
ISLAND ARC
A chain of volcanic islands formed when part of the subducted plate melts and the resulting molten rock rises to the surface along the trench
TRANSFORM FAULT BOUNDARY
Boundary formed where two lithospheric plates slide past each other
CONVECTION CURRENT
Movement in a fluid caused by uneven heating.
THEORY OF SUSPECT TERRANES
Theory that continents are a patchwork of pieces of land that have individual geologic histories.
TERRANES
Pieces of land with a geologic history distinct from that of the surrounding land.
DEFORMATION
Bending, tilting, and breaking of the earth's crust.
ISOSTASY
Balancing of the forces pressing up and down on the earth's crust.
ISOSTATIC ADJUSTMENTS
Up-and-down movements of the earth's crust to reach isostasy.
STRESS
Force that causes pressure in rocks of the earth's crust.
STRAIN
Change in shape and volume of rocks that occurs due to stress.
COMPRESSION
Stress that squeezes crustal rocks together.
TENSION
Stress that pulls rocks apart.
SHEARING
Stress that pushes rocks in opposite horizontal directions.
FOLDING
Permanent deformation or bending of a rock under stress.
ANTICLINE
Upcurved fold in horizontal rock layers.
SYNCLINE
Downcurved fold in horizontal rock layers.
MONOCLINE
Gently dipping bend in horizontal rock layers.
FRACTURE
Break in rock along which there is no movement.
FAULT
Break in rock along which rocks on either side of the break move.
NORMAL FAULT
Fault in which the hanging wall moves down relative to the footwall.
FAULT PLANE
Surface of a fault along which movement of rocks occurs.
HANGING WALL
Rock above a normal fault plane.
FOOTWALL
Rock below a fault plane.
REVERSE FAULT
Fault in which the hanging wall moves up relative to the footwall.
THRUST FAULT
Type of reverse fault in which the fault plane is nearly horizontal rathe4r than vertical.
STRIKE-SLIP FAULT
Fault in which the rock on either side of a fault plane slides horizontally.
MOUNTAIN RANGE
Group of adjacent mountains wiht the same general shape and structure.
MOUNTAIN SYSTEM
Group of adjacent mountain ranges.
MOUNTAIN BELTS
Group of large mountain systems.
FOLDED MOUNTAIN
Landform created when tectonic movements bend and uplift rock layers.
PLATEAUS
Large area of flat-topped rocks high above sea level.
FAULT-BLOCK MOUNTAINS
Mountain formed where faulting breaks the earth's crust into large blocks and the blocks are uplifted and tilted.
GRABEN
Long, narrow valley formed by faulting and downward slippage of a crustal block.
VOLCANIC MOUNTAIN
mountain formed when molten rock erupts onto the earth's surface.
DOME MOUNTAIN
Landform created when molten rock pushes up rock layers on the earth's surface and the layers then are worn away in places, leaving
EARTHQUAKE
Vibration of the earth's crust.
ELASTIC REBOUND THEORY
Theory that rocks that are strained past a certain point will fracture and spring back to their original shape.
AFTERSHOCK
tremor that follows and is smaller than a major earthquake.
FOCUS
Area along a fault at which slippage first occurs, initiating an earthquake.
EPICENTER
Point on the earth's surface directly above the focus of an earthquake.
PACIFIC RING OF FIRE
Major earthquake zone that forms a ring around the Pacific Ocean.
FAULT ZONE
Group of interconnected faults.
P-WAVE
Primay wave; the fastest wave generated by an earthquake and the first to be recorded by a seismograph.
S-WAVE
Secondary wave; a wave generated by an earthquake and the second to be recorded by a seismograph.
L-WAVE
Surface or long wave; the slowest wave generated by an earthquake and the last to be recorded by a seismograph.
SEISMOGRAPH
Instrument used to detect and record seismic waves.
MICROQUAKE
Earthquake with a magnitude less than 2.5 on the Richter scale.
MERCALLI SCALE
Scale that expresses the intensity of an earthquake with a Roman numeral and a description.
INTENSITY
Amount of damage caused by an earthquake.
TSUNAMI
Giant ocean wave tht often occurs after a major earthquake with an epicenter on the ocean floor.
VOLCANO
Lava and tephra built up on the earth's sufrace around a vent.
LAVA
Magma that reaches the earth's surface.
VOLCANISM
An activity that includes the movement of magma toward or onto the earth's surface.
SEISMIC GAP
Zone of rock in which a fault is locked and unable to move and in which no major earthquake has occurred for at least 30 years.
MAGMA
Liquid rock produced deep inside the earth.
FISSURE
Crack in a rock surface through which lava flows.
HOT SPOT
Area of volcanism within a lithospheric plate.
MAFIC LAVA
Dark-colored lava rich in magnesium and iron.
FELSIC LAVA
Silica-rich lava.
PAHOEHOE
solidified mafic lava with a wrinkled surface.
AA
Jagged chunks of lava formed by rapid cooling on the surface of a lava flow.
PILLOW LAVA
Lava that flows our of fissures on the ocean floor and cools rapidly in rounded shapes.
TEPHRA
Also called pyroclastic material, all the rock fragments ejected from a volcano.
PYROCLASTIC MATERIAL
Also called tephra, all of the rock fragments ejectged from a volcano.
VOLCANIC ASH
Tephra particles between 0.25 and 2 mm in diameter.
VOLCANIC DUST
Tephra particles less than0.25 mm in diameter.
VOLCANIC BOMB
Large spindle-shaped clot of lava thrown out of a volcano.
VOLCANIC BLOCK
The largest tephra, formed from solid rock blasted from a fissure.
SHIELD CONE
Volcanic deposit of hardened lava with a broad base and gentle slopes.
CINDER CONE
Steep-sloped deposit of solid fragments ejected from a volcano.
COMPOSITE CONE
Also called stratovolcano, steep-sloped volcanic deposit with alternating layers of hardened lava flows and tephra.
STRATOVOLCANOES
Also called a composite cone, steep-sloped volcanic deposit with alternating layers of hardened lava flows and tephra.
CRATER
Funnel-shaped pit at the top of a volcanic cone.
CALDERA
Large basin-shaped depressionformed when an explosion destroys the upper part of a volcanic cone.