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21 Cards in this Set

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periodic
having a regular, repeating patteren
period
a horizontal row of elements on the periodic table-mendeleev's
group
a column of elements on the periodic table
major characteristics and examples from each class of element. metals
shiny,malleable,good conductors of thermal engery most are ductile-atoms of most metals have few electrons in their outer engery level.
major characteristics and examples from each class of element. metalloids
atoms of metalloiids have a half- complete set of electrons in their outer engery level.-they have some properties of metals and non-metals,--tellurium is shiny, but is brittle easily smashed into powder.
major characteristics and examples from each class of element. nonmetals
brittle, weak, will shatter when hit by a hammer.- are non malleable or ductile- sulfuria a nonmetal- is not shiny.atoms of most nonmetals have an almost complete set of electrons in their outer level, noble gases have a complete set of electronsmost having eight in their outer energy level.poor conductors of thermal energy and electric current half of nonmetals are gases at room temp.-oppisit of meyals.
difference between groups and periods
groups are columns-top to bottom.elements in the same group often have similar chemical and physical properties -sometimes called a family.
differece between period and group
are called rows-left to right properties of elements in a row follow a repeating, or a periodic, patteren as you move across each period.the physical and chemical properties of elements change gradully from those of a metal to nonmeatla in each period. so the opposite ends of a period have very defferent properties from one another
true or false
t
elements in a row become less metallic from left to right.
how are elements identified using chemical symbols
first two letters of it name
first letter of its name
first and third or later letter of the name.
letter(s) of a word other than the English name
first letter of root words that stand for atomic number
(used for elements whose official names have not yet been chosen)
why hydrogen stands apart in the periodic table
the properties of hydrogen do not match the properties of any single group-only one electron in their outer level.
it can give away one electron when joining with other atoms.hydrogen is like non-metals-most abundant element in the world- used in rockets for fuel
nameS of element
major characteristics (METALS)
example of group
GROUP 1-ALKALI METALS
SOFT, SILVERY-COLORED;SHINY low density very actived
one electrons in the outer level
alkaline-earth metals electrons in the outer level-2-reactived but not as reactived as group one becuz it has only 1 electron to share-silver color
metals-transition 3-12 no indiv.names-1-2 electrons-less reactived than alk/earth metals-shared prop.-shiny-good conductors of thermalenrtgy and electric current, higher densities and mealting points.except for mercury-than elements in groups1-2
periodic table GROUP-1
HOW MANY ELECTONS-INTER OR OUTER-REACTIVITY?
SHARES PROPERTIES?
ALKALI METALS-1 OUTER-SOFT, SILVER-COLORED; SHINY; LOW DENSITY (LOW IN LITHIUM, SODIUM, POTASSIUM )LESS DENSE THAN WATER.
periodic table GROUP-2
HOW MANY ELECTONS-INTER OR OUTER-REACTIVITY?
SHARES PROPERTIES?
ALKALINE - EARTH METALS 2 OUTER- VERY REACTIVED-LESS THAN ALKALI BECUZ ALKALIN ONLY HAS ONE ELECTRON TO SHARE,SILVER- COLORED, MORE DENCE THAN ALKALI METALS-ALKALINE-EARTH METAL MAGNESIUM IS MIXED WITH OTHER MATERIALS USED IN AIRPLAINS-COMPOUNDS OF CALCIUM ARE FOUND IN CEMENT,PLASTER,CHALK, YOU
periodic table GROUP-3-12
HOW MANY ELECTONS-INTER OR OUTER-REACTIVITY?
SHARES PROPERTIES?
TRANSITION METALS -1OR2 OUTER
LESS REACTIVED THAN ALKALINE-EARTH METALS.THE ATOMS OF THE TRAN. METALS DO NOT GIVE AWAY THEIR ELECTRONS AS EASILY AS GROUP 1 &2MAKING THEM LESS REACTIVED- SHARES- SHINY, GOOD CONDUCTORS OF THERMAL ENGERY AND ELECTRIC CURRENTS HIGHER DENSITIES AND MEALTING POINTS(EXCEPT FOR MERCURY) THAN ELEMENTS IN GROUPS 1 AND 2-
periodic table GROUP-13-16
HOW MANY ELECTONS-INTER OR OUTER-REACTIVITY?
SHARES PROPERTIES?
METALLOIDS=SOME METALS AND NONMETALS,-ONE METALLOID AND FOUR METALS-3-OUTER-REACTIVE SHARED-SOLID AT ROOM TEMP.MOST COMMON- ALUMINUM- CAR OARTS AIRCRAFT FOIL CANS WIRES
periodic table GROUP-14
HOW MANY ELECTONS-INTER OR OUTER-REACTIVITY?
SHARES PROPERTIES
CARBON GROUP-ONE NONMETAL, TWO METALLOIDS AND TWO METALS- 4 OUTER LEVEL REACTIVY VARIES AMONG THE ELEMENTS-SHARED-SOLID AT ROOM TEMP-METALLOIDS SILICOM AND GERMANIUM ARE USED TO MAKE COMPUTER CHIPS.-THE METAL IS NOT VERY REACTIVED/-TIN CAN IS MADE OF STEEL COATED WITH TIN- TIN IS LESS REACTIVED THAN STEEL- TIN KEEPS THE STEEL FROM RUSTING NON METAL CARBON FOUND UNCOMBINED IN NATURE-PROTEINS, FATS, CARBS-NEED TO LIVE ON EARTH.DIAMONDS AND SOOT VERY DIFFERENT-BUT ARE NATURAL FORMS OF CARBON.
periodic table GROUP-15
HOW MANY ELECTONS-INTER OR OUTER-REACTIVITY?
SHARES PROPERTIES
NITROGEN GROUP-2-NONMETALS,2 METALLOIDS 1 METAL- 5 OUTER LEVEL-REACTIVED VARIES AMONG THE ELEMENTS-SHARED-ALL BUT NITROGEN ARE SOLID AT ROOM TEMP.NITROGEN IS GAS AT ROOM TEMP- MAKES UP 80%OF THE AIR YOU BREATHE-NITROGEN REMOVED FROM AIR IS REACTED WITH HYDROGEN TO MAKE AMMONIA FOR FERTILIZERS.NITROGEN IS NON REACTIVED-PHOSPHORUS IS ONLY FOUND EXTREMLY REACTIVED- COMBINED WITH OTHER ELEMENTS IN NATURE.
periodic table GROUP-16
HOW MANY ELECTONS-INTER OR OUTER-REACTIVITY?
SHARES PROPERTIES
OXYGEN GROUP-3 NONMETALS- 1 METALLOIDS-1 METAL-OUTER LEVEL6-REACTIVED-SHARES ALL BUT OXYGEN ARE SOLID AT ROOM TEMP-OXYGEN IS 20% OF AIR.IT IS NECESSARY FOR SUBSTANCE TO BURN- CHEMICAL ON A MATCH STICK-SULFURAS A YELLOW SOLID FOUND IN NATURE. IT MAKES SULFURIC ACID-WIDLEY USED COMPOUND.
periodic table GROUP-17-18
HOW MANY ELECTONS-INTER OR OUTER-REACTIVITY?
SHARES PROPERTIES
HALOGENS NON METALS- 17 ONLY REACTIVED-7 OUTER LEVEL VERY REACTIVED-SHARED-POOR CONDUCTORS OF ELECTRIC CURRENT, REACT VIOLENTLY W/ ALKALI METALS TO FORM SALTS-NEVER FOUND UNCOMBINED IN NATURE- VERY REACTIVED BECUZ THEIR ATOM NEED TO GAIN ONLY ONE ELECTRON TO HAVE A COMPLETE OUTER LEVEL- USE FOR CHLORINE TO TREAT WATER-IODINE MIXED W/ALCOHOL IS USED IN HOSPITAL.
periodic table GROUP-18
HOW MANY ELECTONS-INTER OR OUTER-REACTIVITY?
SHARES PROPERTIES
NOBLE GASES-GROUP CONTAINS NONMETALS- GROUP 18 NORMALLY WON'T REACT 8 OUTER LEVEL(2FOR HELIUM)SHARED- COLORLESS, ODORLESS GASES AT ROOM TEMP.NON REACT BECUZ THEY HAVE A COMPLETE SET OF ELECTRONS IN THE OUTER LEVEL.-FOUND- IN EARTHS ATMOSPHERE IN SMALL AMOUNTS-MAKES 1% OF THE ATMOSPHERE. LIGHT BULBS LAST LONGER WHEN FILLED W/ ARGON BECUZ ARGON IS NONREACTIVE- HELIUM IS SAFER THAN HYDROGEN NONREACTIVED -HELIUM MAKES BLIMPS TO FLOAT -NEON LIGHTS