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44 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is a physical change?
a change in form or appearance, without changing composition.
What is a solution?
a type of homogeneous mixture formed when 1 substance dissolves in another.
What is a homogeneous mixture?
a mixture that appears to be the same throughout. They have small particles, not easily recognized.
What is a heterogeneous mixture?
a mixture that doesn't appear to be the same throughout. They have large particles.
What is a colloid?
same as homogeneous, except with large particles and permanently suspended.
What are alloys?
metal solutions (solid in solid).
What is solubility?
amount of a solute that can be completely dissolved in a given amount of solvent at a specific temperature.
What is a solvent?
a dissolving medium.
What is a solute?
dissolved material.
What is an electrolyte?
a material whose water solution conducts electricity.
What is a non-electrolyte?
a material whose water solution doesn't conduct electricity.
What is suspension?
a mixture formed by mixing a liquid with particles that are much larger than ions/molecules.
What is miscible?
2 liquids that are soluble in each other.
What is immiscible?
liquids that are insoluble in each other.
What is emulsion?
when shaken together, liquids can form a temporary mixture.
What is an emulsifier?
a special substance added to liquids in an emulsion to make it last longer.
What are diatomic molecules?
molecules made up of 2 atoms of the same element.
What are reactants?
materials that you begin with in a chemical reaction.
What are products?
the resulting substances of a chemical reaction.
What is a coefficient?
a number used before a substance to represent the number of each atom - balances and equation.
What is synthesis?
the process in which 2 simple materials combine to form a more complex compound.
What is a chemical equation?
shorthand that represents a chemical process that's know to occur. Tells types of molecules/atoms, and their numbers.
What is a chemical change?
process in which atoms are rearranged or exchanged between 2 compounds.
What is endothermic?
a process in which heat is taken in from the surroundings (H2O).
What is exothermic?
a process in which heat is released to the surroundings (H2O).
What is heat of solution?
amount of heat associated with the dissolving of 1 mole of a solid.
What is a saturated solution?
a solution at equilibrium (liquid has dissolved as much as possible.)
What is solution equilibrium?
physical state in which the opposite processes of dissolving and crystalization occur at the same rate.
What is non-aqueous?
all other liquids but H2O.
What is aqueous?
What is heat of reaction?
the amount of heat associated with the chemical reaction of 1 mole of a reactant.
What is heat of formation?
the amount of heat associated with the formation of 1 mole of a compound from its elements (synthesis).
What is heat of combustion?
the amount of heat associated with the burning of 1 mole of a fuel.
What is the Law of Conservation of Energy?
during chemical and physical processes, energy is neither created nor destroyed. It is stored or released.
What is oxidation?
any process in which a material combines chemically with oxygen. ALL ARE EXOTHERMIC!
What is Stoichiometry?
the study of mass relationships in chemical processes.
What is the Law of Conservation of Mass/Matter?
during chemical and physical processes, matter is neither created nor destroyed.
What is decomposition?
1 complex compound breaks to form 2 simpler materials.
What is single-displacement?
an element and a compound react to form a different element and different compound.
What is double-displacement?
2 compounds react to form 2 different compounds.
What is electrolysis?
decomposition by electricity.
What are combustion reactions?
reactions in which a compound and oxygen burn.
What does concentrated mean?
lots of dissolved solute.
What does dilute mean?
very little dissolved solute.