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56 Cards in this Set

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Mendeleev
looked for patterns among the properties of elements in the 1860's--created the periodic table--predicted the properties of the missing elements by using a pattern of properties in the periodic table--thought that the atomic masses were wrong, but they were correct
Henry Mosely
determined the correct number of protons in an atom--his work improved the periodic table
What is the Periodic Law?
chemical and physical properties of elements are periodic functions of their atomic numbers
The classes of elements and what they are determined by
1: metals
2: nonmetals
3: metalloids
determined by the number of valence electrons in the outer shell
Metals
most elements are metals, atoms of most metals have few valence electrons, solid at room temp, good conductor of thermal energy, ductile, good conductor of electric current, malleable, and shiny
Non Metals
poor conductor of thermal energy and electric currents, atoms of most nonmetals have an almost complete set of valence electrons, more than half of the nonmetals are gases at room temperature, properties of nonmetals are the opposite of the properties of metals ( not malleable, ductile, or shiny)
Metalloids and two examples
located between metals and nonmetals on the periodic table,
also called semiconductors,atoms have between 3 and 6 valence electrons, have properties of both metals and nonmetals
Examples: Boron and Tellurium
Tellurium: shiny but brittle
Boron: almost as hard as diamonds but is very brittle, @ high temps, boron is a good conductor of electric current
who is responsible for naming elements and what do some names come from
an international committee of scientists--some names come from scientists' names and geographic locations
What are rows also known as and why?
Periods--numbered 1-7, called a period because the properties of elements in a row following a repeating, or periodic pattern as you move across each period,
What are columns also known as and why?
Columns are also called groups
elements in the same group often have similiar chemical and physical properties
sometimes groups are called families
Patterns of chemical symbols
1: first letter of the name
2: first two letters of the name
3: first letter and third or later letter of the name
4: Letters of a word other than the english name
5: latin root letters
6: atomic #
What type of metal is less reactive than alkali metals and alkali-earth metals?
Transition Metals
Atoms of what don't give away their electrons as easily as atoms of group 1 or 2?
Transition metals
What color are many transition metals?
silver
Lanthanide's and actinide's properties are very-----?
similar
Lanthanides are found in which period and why?
Period 6 because they follow the transition metal lanthanum
Lanthanides and their use
shiny, reactive metals that are used in the making of steel
What Europium is used for
to coat the back of television screens to produce the color red.
Actinides are found in which period and why?
Period 7 because they follow the transition metal actinium.
All Actinides are------.
radioactive
the atoms of what type of elements can change into atoms of a different element?
radioactive
Elements after ------- do not occur in nature, but are instead produced in laboratories.
plutonium
What element # is plutonium?
94
What element is used in smoke detectors?
americium
What is americium's element number?
95
Groups 1 and 2 are the most ----- of all the elements.
reactive
what is the reason for groups 1 and 2s' reactivity?
valence electrons
Atoms are most stable with ----- electons.
eight
In order to have a complete set of eight valence electrons, atoms can do what?
take, give, or share
elements whose elements undergo a process to have a complete set of eight valence electrons are reactive and combine to form what?
compounds
the atoms of what type of elements can change into atoms of a different element?
radioactive
Elements after ------- do not occur in nature, but are instead produced in laboratories.
plutonium
What element # is plutonium?
94
What element is used in smoke detectors?
americium
What is americium's element number?
95
Groups 1 and 2 are the most ----- of all the elements.
reactive
what is the reason for groups 1 and 2s' reactivity?
valence electrons
Atoms are most stable with ----- electons.
eight
In order to have a complete set of eight valence electrons, atoms can do what?
take, give, or share
elements whose elements undergo a process to have a complete set of eight valence electrons are reactive and combine to form what?
compounds
elements whose atoms need to take give or share only one or two valence electrons tend to be -----------.
very reactive
Elements in groups 1 and 2 are so reactive that ----------------.
They are only found combined w. other elements in nature.
To study elements in groups 1 and 2, scientists first need to-------- though-------------.
seperate the naturally occuring compounds by breaking them apart through chemical changes.
What type of metals are soft enough to be cut with a knife?
Alkali Metals
Which elements are less dense than water?
Lithium, sodium, and potassium
Which type of metal is most reactive?
Alkali Metal
How many valence electrons do Alkali Metals have?
1
What must be done to Alkali Metals to prevent them from reacting w. water and/or the oxygen in the atmosphere?
They must be stored in oil.
What is Sodium Hydroxide used for?
to unclog your drain
Potassium Bromide
one of the several Potassium compounds used in photography
What type of metals aren't as reactive as Alkali metals?
Alkaline- Earth Metals
How many valence electrons do Alkaline Earth Metals have?
2
Magnesium is often------- to make---------
mixed w. other metals to make low-density materials used in airplanes
Compounds of calcium are found in---------
cement, plaster, chalk, and people
Why are alkali metals more reactive than alkaline earth metals?
Because their atoms can easily give away the single electron in their outer shell
Why are neither the alkali metals nor the alkaline earth metals found uncombined in nature?
Because they are too reactive to be alone.