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59 Cards in this Set

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Photosynthesis
6CO2 + 6H2O + sunlight ---->C6H12O6
Blade
Contain chlorophyll (for photosynthesis) and allow for gas exchange and water evaporation
Vein
Carry water, minerals and sugars throughout the blade.
Midrib
center vein
Vascular
has veins
Petiole
short stalk that connects the leaf to the stem and transports stuff between the two
Simple
one blade
Compound
two or more small blades (leaflets) linked to a main petiole
Pinnate
Short stalk that connects the leaf to the stem and transports stuff between the two
Palmate
Like the fingers and palm of your hand several lobes radiating from a central point
Stem
structure that supports leave and flowers, and transports water and nutrients
Function of a stem (3)
1) Support leave and flowers
2) Transport water and nutrients
3) Food storage areas (in some plants, for example, potatoes)
Function of a root (3)
1) Absorb water and minerals.
2) Anchor the plant.
3) Store some food. (Like a carrot)
Root hairs
cover root and increase surface area
Taproot
Single, large central root with smaller side roots branching out from it.
Fibrous
Clump of short threadlike roots. Usually shallower than taproots. Better at preventing soil erosion.
Flowers
reproductive organ of a flowering plant which produces sperm and/or eggs
Pollination
The process of transporting pollen from male to female flower parts
Fertilization
Union of egg and sperm resulting in zygote and egg resulting respectively
Seed
Reproductive structure consisting of a plant embryo and its stored food.
Fruit
What seeds develop into in flowering plants, they house and protect seeds
Autotrophs
Make their own food
Producers
Make food that other organisms can use
Why do we like plants? (7)
1) We eat them; they are usually the first link in most food chains, their energy is stored in carbohydrates (complexsugar) bonds.
2) They make oxygen; needed for cellular respiration.
3) They provide shelter directly and indirectly.
4) Agriculture.
5) Medicine (Aspirin, Quinine, Taxol, etc.)
6) Industry (Dyes, Glues, Perfumes, Car Wax, Leather Preservation, Polish, Fabric, Rope, Lumber, Fuel, Etc.)
7) Prevent Erosion
Why do we dislike plants? (4)
1) Some are poisonous.
2) Weeds compete with “good” plants.
3) Roots can damage underground structures and falling trees can damage stuff.
4) Some of us are allergic to plant sperm.
Plant Cells (6)
1) Are Specialized
2) Have cell walls
3) Are Eukaryotic
4) Contain chloroplasts
5) Share cytoplasm with can pass through cell wall pores
6) Most have vacuoles for water storage
Plants (3)
o Multicellular
o Autotrophs
o Stationary
Dermal Tissue
Protective, outer layer; sometimes photosynthesizes
Vascular Tissue
transports stuff
Xylem
transports water
Phloem
Transports Food
Ground Tissue
Perform photosynthesis and store organic compounds
Why are plants called producers?
make food for themselves and other organisms as well
Vascular Plant
Contain vascular tissue. The larger the plant, the more vascular tissue it contains.
Non Vascular Plant
Don’t contain vascular tissue. Typically smaller because they can’t transport stuff.
Reproduction: Seedless Plants
Embryo develops inside the parent plant.
Gynosperm
Seeds in cones
Angiosperm
Seeds in fruit
Annuals
live, produce, and die in one year or growing season
Biennial
completes life cycle in two years, usually don’t flower until second year
Perennial
Life cycle continues indefinitely
Name three important adaptations of plants.
o internal vascular transport system
o production of seeds
o enclosure of seeds in a protective covering
Plant Classification
size, woodiness, method of reproduction, and life span
Cuticle
Waterproof layer that coats leaf, helps sow evaporation
Stoma (Stomata)
Pores in the epidermis, allow CO2 to enter and water vapor and O2 to diffuse out
Mesophyll
tissue found between the upper and lower epidermis lots of air spaces allowing gases to be exchanged, where most photosynthesis takes place
What you need for photosynthesis:
light
water
carbon dioxide
Atmospheric CO2 has increased dramatically, Why?
We are burning more wood and fossil fuels
Main function of a leaf
to photosynthesize
Cellular Respiration
opposite photosynthesis, breakdown of glucose molecules into CO2 and H2O releasing energy in the process
guard cells
regulate the stomata of a leaf
What is the light compensation of a plant?
the amount of life energy captured by photosynthesis that will keep a plant alive
Turgor
the rigidity of a cell caused by osmotic pressure, the more water there is, the more turgor there is
Water
enters the roots through osmosis
minerals
taken into roots by diffusion or active transport
Transpiration-Cohesion Theory
water moves by transpiration (evaporation of water through the stomata) since substances tend to move from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressures
Meristems
growing tissues (through mitotic division) of plants
Primary Growth
results in elongation of stems and roots through apical (tip) meristems
Secondary Growth
results in an increase in girth through lateral meristems