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12 Cards in this Set

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A unit of inheritance that usually is directly responsible for one trait or character. Each individual has two genes for each trait, one comes from the dad and the other from the mom.
Alternate forms of a gene. Usually there are two alleles for for every gene, sometimes as many as three or four are present in a population.
test cross
Cross an individual that has the dominate trait expressed with a recessive individual to determine if the individual is homozygous dominate or heterozygous dominate.
incomplete dominance
A trait where the phenotype of a hybrid displays a blending of the two alleles.
The physical expression of the genes for the trait by an individual.
The gene makeup of an organism. Phenotype is the trait that an individual expresses while genotype is the two genes that cause that trait.
multiple alleles
three or more alleles for a gene like blood type and skin color.
incomplete dominance
one allele (gene) is not completely dominate over another resulting is a blending of traits.
allele (gene) is located on a sex chromosome and it will be more common in one sex. It is usually on the x-chromosome and more common in males than in females. Barr bodies-tightly coiled X chromosome in females-inactive X chromosome. calico cats-usually on females. yellow and black alleles on X chromosome-female has 2 X's.
karyotype analysis
karyotype is print of human chromosomes. the numbered chromosome pairs termed autosomes are arranged longest to shortest. chromosomes come in pairs. the sex (X and Y) chromosomes are placed last with normal females having XX and normal males having XY. If only X chromosomes are present, it will be female. if X and Y chromosomes are present, it will be male. Bent chromosomes are not abnormal. It is just the way they were photographed. If an individual has an extra long chromosome, it is termed trisomy and if a chromosome is missing, it is termed monosomy.
DNA structure
double helix with sugar (deoxyribose), phosphate and nitrogen bases (adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine) pairing-AT and GC.
DNA replecations
okazaki fragments-READ 3 prime to 5 prime-occurs in nucleus.