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58 Cards in this Set

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What are the characteristics of seed plants?
seed plants share two important characteristics; they have vascular tissue and they use pollen and seeds to reproduce
phloem
the vascular tissue through which food moves in some plants
xylem
the vascular tissue through which water and nutrients move in some plants
pollen
tiny particles(male gametophytes)produced by seed plants that contain the vells that later become sperm cells
seed
the plant structure that contains a youn plant inside a protective covering
How do seeds become new plants?
inside a seed is a partially developed plant; if a seed lands in an area where conditions are favorable, the plant sprouts out of the seed and begins to grow
embryo
the young organism that develops from a zygote
cotyledons
a seed leaf; sometimes stores food
germinarion
the sprouting of the embryo out of a seed; occurs when the embryo resumes its growth
What are roots?
roots anchor a plant in the ground, absorb water and minerals from the soil, and sometimes store food
root cap
a structure that covers the tip of a root, protecting the root from injury
What are stems?
the stem carries substances between the plant's roots and leaves; the stem also provides support for the plant and holds up the leaves so they are exposed to the sun
cambium
a layer of cells in a plant that produces new phlooem and xylem cells
What are leaves?
leaves capture the sun's energy and carry out the food-making process of photosynthesis
stomata
the small openings on the surfaces of most leaves through which gases can move
transpiration
the process by which water is lost through a plant's leaves
gymnosperm
a plant that produces seeds that are not enclosed by a protective fruit
What are gymnosperms?
every gymnosperm produces naked seeds; in addition, many gymnosperms have needle-like or scale like leaves, and deep-growing root systems
ovule
a plant structure in seed plants that produces the female gametophyte; contains an egg cell
What are the steps for reproduction in gymnosperms?
first, pollen falls from a male cone onto a female cone; in time, a perm cell and an egg cell join together in an ovule on the female cone
pollination
the transfer of pollen from male reproductive structures to femal reproducive structures in plants
How do we use gymnosperms in everyday life?
paper and other products, such as the lumber used to build homes, come from conifers
angiosperms
a flowering plant that produces seeds enclosed in a protective structure
What are the two characteristics that angiosperms have?
all angiosperms, or flowering plants, share two important characteristics; first, they produce flower; second, in contrast to gymnosperms, which produce uncovered seeds, angiosperms produce seeds that are enclosed in fruits
What is the structure of flowers?
flowers come in all sorts of shapes, sizes, and colors; but, despite their differences, all flowers have the same function- reproduction
flower
the reproductive structure of an angiosperm
sepals
a leaflike structure that encloses the but of a flower
petals
a colorful, leaflike structure of some flowers
stamens
the male reproductive part of a flower
pistils
the female reproductive part of a flower
ovary
a flower structure that encloses and protects ovules and seeds as they develop
What are the steps to the reproduction of an angiosperm?
first, pollen falls on a flower's stigma; in time, the sperm cell and egg cell join together in the flower's ovule; the zygote developes into the embryo part of the seed
fruit
the ripened ovary and other structures of an angiosperm that enclose one or more seeds
What are the types of angiosperms?
angiosperms are divided into two major groups: monocots and dicots
monocots
an angiosperm that has only on seed leaf
dicots
an angiosperm that has two seed leaves
tropism
the growth response of a plant toward or away from a stimulus
What are examples of tropisms?
touch, light, and gravity are three important stimuli to which plants show growth responses, or tropisms
hormone
a chemical that affects growth and developement
auxin
a plant hormone that speeds up the rate of growth of plant cells
What encironmental factor triggers a plant to flower?
the amount of darkness a plant receives determines the time of flowering in many plants
photoperiodism
a plant's response to seasonal changes in length of night and day
short-day plants
a plant that flowers when the nights are longer than the plant's critical night length
long-day plants
a plant that flowers when the nights are shorter than the plant's critical night length
critical night length
the number of hours of darkness that determines whether or not a plant will flower
perennials
a flowering plant that lives for more than two years
day-neutral plants
a plant with a flowering cycle that is not sensitive to periods of light and dark
dormancy
a period when an organism's growth or activity stops
precision farming
a farming method in which farmersz use echnolog to fine-tune the amount of wtaer and fertilizer they use to march the requirements of a specific field
What does dormancy do?
dormancy helps plants survive freexing temperatures and the lack of liquid water
What are the life span of angiosperm?
angiosperms are classified as annuals, biennials, or perennials based on the length of their life cycles
hydroponics
a farming method in which plants are grown in solutions of nutrients instead of soil
biennials
a flowering plant that completes its life cycle in two years
genetic engineering
the process of altering an organism's genetic material to produce an organism with qualities that people find useful
What are scientists using genetic engineering for?
scientists are using genetic engineering to produce plants that can grow in a wider range of climates; they are also engineering plants to be more resistant to damage from insects
How does precision farming benefit?
precision can benefit farmers by saving time and money; it also increases crop yields by helping farmers maintain ideal conditions in all fields
What does hydroponics allow people to do?
hydroponics allows people to grow crops in areas with poor soil to help feed a growing population
cone
the reproductive structure of a gymnosperm