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135 Cards in this Set

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When doing work you exert ______ over __________
Force, Distance
Think of the formula, work equals __ times __
In order to do work, the object must
Move
Think of question
For work to be done, force exerted must bein the ________ as the objects _____
Same Direction, Motion
Work= ? * ?
Force, Distance
Think of other questions
The SI Unit for work is the ____
NewtonMeter
Aka a Joule
A Newton-Meter is also called a _____
Joule
One joule is the amount of work you do when y ou exert a force of ________ to move an object a distance of ________
One Newton, One Meter
How does a machine make work easier?
The Machine makes the input force easier.
If only the direction of force changes the input force and output force are _____. The mechanical advantage is ______.
Equal, 100
The efficiency of a machine compares _____ Work to _____ Work
Output, Input
Efficiency is expressed as a
Percent
List the six simple machines and give an example of each.
Wedge- Doorstop
Screw- Jelly Lid
Pulley- Flagpole
Wheel and Axel- Car Wheel
Lever- SeeSaw
Inclined Plane- Ramp
The fixed point on a lever is called a ______.
Fulcrum
Define Lever
A simple machine consisting of a rigid object that pivots about a fixed point.
Define Pulley.
A simple machine consisting of a grooved wheel around which it is wrapped in a rope, such as cable.
What is the difference between movable and fixed pulleys?
Fixed: Is a pulley used to keep structures in tack.
Movable: If you wish to move a pulley.
What is a compound machine? Give an example of one.
A machine with two or more simple machines.
Most machines in our body are
Levers
What is Energy?
The ability to do work or cause change.
What is work?
Transfer of energy.
What is the un it for work?
Joules or a Newton-Meter
List three examples of kinetic energy
Swinging a bat, funning, mowing the lawn.
What does kinetic energy depend on?
MAss and Velocity
Describe two ways to increase Kinetic Energy.
Double the mass, or double the velocity.
Think of Formula
What is the equation for KE?
KE= Mass * Velocity Squared
------------------------
2
What is Potential Energy>
Energy that is stored and held in rediness.
List and give examples of the 6 types of energy.
Mechanical- School Bus
Thermal- Blow Dryer
Chemical- Chocolate
Electrical- Shock, Lightning
Electromagnetic- Light from sun
Nuclear- Nuclear Energy
What is an Energy conversion?
Energy that is converted into another energy.
State the law of conservation of energy.
Energy that is neither converted and is not lost.
What is a fossil fuel? How is it formed?
Created by the sun and it's light.
What is power?
The rate at which work is done.
What is the equation for power?
Power= Work
----------
Distance
What is the unit for power?
Watts
Define: Temperature
Energy gained or lost
How do you change temperatures on the Kelvin scale for Celsius degrees?
Divide Numbers
Define: Thermal Energy
Particles that are heated and have energy.
The _____ particles a substance has at a given temperature, the more _____ energy it has.
More, Thermal
Define: Heat
Movement of thermal energy.
Heat is transferred by _____, _____, ____.
Radiation, conduction, convection.
Describe conduction, convection, radiation.
Conduction- Heat is on the bottom pushing up onto a pan to make it hot.
Convection- Heat transfered in currents within a fluid.
Radiation- Electromagnetic Waves
Heat flows from the _____ object to the ____ one
Warm, Cool
A material that does not conduct heat well is a/an _______.
Insulator
List the 3 states of matter on earth.
Solid, liquid, gas
What happens to temperature during a phase change?
Goes into a different state of matter.
What happenes to heat (Thermal Energy) during a phase change.
Energy is transferred
As the thermal energy of a substance ____, its particles spread out and the substance expands.
Increases
What is a wave?
A disturbance that transfers energy from one place to place.
Wave cause the particles of a medium to do what?
Makes it travel move throughout.
How are waves classified.
By Surface, longitudinal, and Transverse
What is the highest and lowest part of a wave called?
Crest, Trough
How do the particles of transverse waves move? Of longitudinal waves?
Transverse- Waves move through medium at a right angle two the direction of the wave.
Longitudinal- Wave and medium move in parallel direction.
What is amplitude?
The maximum distance the particles of the medium carrying the wave.
How can you measure the wavelength of a wave?
Measure the distance between 2 coorosponding pairs of a wave.
What is the unit for frequency?
Hertz
Name 3 factors that affect the speed of a wave in a medium.
Temperature, elasticity, Density
When does a wave experience reflection? Give an example
When the wave hits a boundary and bounces back.
An Echo
In both diffraction and refraction waves bend, explain how they are different.
Diffraction is the bending of waves around the edge of a barrier. Refraction is the bending of waves due to a new medium.
What is wave interference ? Explain how the amplitude changes with destructive and constructive interference.
The interaction between two waves at the same place at the same time. Amplitude Increases with constructive interference. Amplitude decreases with destructive interference.
What is a standing wave and when does it occur?
A standing wave occurs when an incoming wave combines with a regular wave and appears to be standing still.
How can you make an object resonate?
When a vibration is applied that matches the natural frequency.
Sound is a _________ that travels through a _________ as a _________ wave
Disturbance, Medium, Longitudinal
What three mediums do sounds travel through?
Solid, Liquid, Gas
Sound can only travel if... Sound will not travel in __________
Has a medium to travel in through outer space
Three properties that effect the speed of sound are ______,______,and ________
Elasticity, Density, and Temperature of a medium
Define elasticity. The more elastic a medium is sound will travel _________.
Ability of a material to bounce back after disturbance quickly.
The ________ of a sound depends upon how much energy the wave carries a second in a given area.
Intensity
Loudness or sound level is measured in ________. Each 10 dB increase in sound level represents a ________ increase in intensity.
Decibal, Tenfold
Define ultrasound and infrasound
UltraSound- Above Normal, Infra- Below Normal
Define pitch. Pitch depends upon ________.
How high or low a sound is, frequency.
Define Doppler Effect
Change in frequency of a wave in motion.
As a sound apporoaches the listener, the pitch is _______ due to a ________ frequency.
Higher, High
Music is a set of tones combined in ways that are....
Pleasing to the ear
Interference occurs when _______ or __________ sound waves _______
Two or More, Interact
How are acoustics used to design concert halls?
Sound waves reach his listeners from different directions. Most design a hall so interference is not destructive.
Sound enters through the _____ _______ and then vibrates the _______, a tightly stretched membrane.
Ear Canal, Eardrum
From here, sound enters the middle ear through three small bones (in order, outer to inner)
Hammer, Anvil, Stirrup
Liquid cavity of the inner ear is called the _______.
Cochlea
Describe how the cochlea transmits sound to the brain.
Tiny hairs send messages to the brain.
How is a EM wave different from a mechanical wave?
No medium is needed
What is polarized light?
Light that has been passed through a filter to produce waves moving in one direction.
What is a photon?
A packet of light energy
How are all electromagnetic waves the same? How are they different.
Travel at the same speed but with different wavelengths and frequencies.
List the 6 types of EM waves in order of increasing frwquency. Give an example of each.
Radio (Radar gun), Infared (Heat lamp),
Visible (Rainbow), Ultraviolet (Sun Rays) X-Rays (x-rays), Gamma (Cancer Treatment)
How does an incandescent light work?
Electricity runs thru filament and heats it up.
What does AM stand for?
Amplitude Modulation
What reamains constant in an AM station.
Frequency
What does FM stand for?
Frequency Modulation
What changes in FM radio stations?
Frequency
What type of waves do cell phones use?
They use microwaves/radio
What is the global positioning system (GPS) used for?
To tell you where you are, to give you directions.
When light strikes an object, the light can be ____, ____, and ____
Reflected, absorbed, transmitted
Define: Opaque
A material that reflects or absorbs all the light that strikes it.
Compare transparent and translucent materials
A transparent material transmitts light. Translucent Materal allow some light to get through.
When does regular relection occur?
When parallal rays of light hit a smooth surface.
When does diffuse reflection occur?
When parallel rays of light hit a bumpy, or uneven surface (Spread out)
A concave mirror curves
Inward
Since the rays do not actually meet, images fromed by convex mirrors are always _______.
Virtual
When light rays enter a new medium at an angle, the change in speed causes them to _____, or change ______.
Bend, Direction
Define. Lens.
A curved peice of glass or other transparent material that is used to refract light.
A _____ lens is thinner in the center than at the edges.
Concave
What happens to parallel light that enters a concave lens?
Light converges (comes together)
The primary colors of light are ____, ___, and ____.
Red, Blue, Green (RGB)
Define. Pigments
Substances that are usedto color other materials
Describe the cornea
The transperent front surface that protects the eye and also acs as a lens.
The ____ is a ring of muscle that contracts and expands to change the amount of light that enters the eye. The ____ gives the eyes its color. Iris changes size, not pupil
Iris, Iris
The ___ is the part of the eye that looks black. It is actually a hole.
Pupil
Define: Retina
The layer of cells lining the inside of a eyeball.
The signals generated by the rods and cones travel to your brain along a short, thick nerve called the _____ _____
Optic Nerve
In some people the eyeball is slight too ___ or ___.
Long, Short
A ___ person can see nearby things clearly, but object at a distance can appear blurry
Nearsighted
What kind of eyeglasses woulda nearsighted person wear.
Ones with concave lenses causes parallel light to diverge
What does laser stand for?
Light amplication by stimulatied emission of radiation.
Name two occupations that use lasers
Surveyors and Engineers
What is the speed of light?
300,000,000 m/sec
Define. Magnetism
it is the attraction of a magnet for another magnetised object.
Unlike poles _____ while, like poles _______.
Attract
Repel
What happens when a magnet is broken into two peices?
It makes two magnets, both with a North and a South Pole.
What is the magnetic field?
It is the region of force surronding the magnet.
What makes a material magnetic?
The spin of an electron.
What is the differenct between a temporary magnet and a permanent magnet.
Temporary- Keeps it magnetism for a short while
Permanent- Keeps it magnetism forever.
Name 3 ways a magnet can lose its magnetism.
Drop it, Strike it hard, or heat it
what is magnetic declination?
It is the angle between the geographic North and the magnetic South poles.
What is the unit for current
Amper or Amp
The charged paticles of the atom are the _____ and _____
Protons, Electrons
The charge on a proton is
Positive
Opposite charges when placed close to one another will _______, while like charges will _______.
Attract, Repel
Buildup of electric charge called-
Static
How does static cling occur? What are two ways static cling can be helpful?
Friction
Plastic Wrap
Define static discharge. How does a humid day alter static?
Loss static, moisture absorbs charges
Define potential energy.
Energy of position
Examples of voltage sources include:
Batteries, Generators
The greater the resistance the _____ current for given voltage
Less
State Ohms law
Current= Voltage
-----------
Resistance
Series circuts have only ____ path. Draw one source, two loads in series, lights on.
One
What happens when one of the bulbs burn out? What happens to the circut as more light are added? Why?
Burns out, the lights get much dimmer.