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163 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is matter?
physical material of the universe, it has mass and takes up space
What is an atom?
protons, neutrons, and electrons
-building block of all matter
What is an element?
what matter is made of, there are about 100 of them
Who is John Dalton?
He furthered the atomic theory-
thought that matter is made of atoms, all atoms of a given element are identical, and atoms in an element are not changed into different types of atoms by chemical reaction
Who is Democritus?
theorized that atoms made up matter and were the smallest particle and that atoms are not broken into smaller pieces.
What is the atomic theory?
-atoms are the building block of matter
-atoms are the smallest particle of an element that retains the chemical identity of the element
-law of conservation of matter/mass-matter (atoms) can't be created or destroyed.
What are protons?
-positively charged
-the protons are found in the nucleus
What are neutrons?
-present in the nucleus
-no charge
What are electrons?
-present around the nucelus in an electron cloud
-negetively charged
What is an electron cloud?
electrons which hover around the nucleus
What is the atomic number?
how many protons and electrons are present
What is the atomic mass?
-mass of the atom
-can use it to find the number of neutrons (atomic mass-atomic #=neutrons)
What are orbitals?
the path around the nucleus that the electron travels
-the first orbital only has room for 2 electrons
-second and third orbitals have room for 8
What is the octet rule?
Atoms are most stable when it has 8 electrons in it's valence shell.
What is the lewis structure?
shows the bonding between atoms -show the atom by using its chemical symbol
-only represents the valence shell
-each dot represents an electron
What is the valence shell?
the outermost orbital (stable when has 8 electrons)
What are covalent bonds?
When 2 or more atoms share electrons to form a molecule
What is an ionic bond?
-sometime atoms or molecules gain or lose electrons
-creates an unequal number of protons and electrons so you get a charged molecule=ion.
example:sodium gets rid of an electron so it can be stable and then it becomes an ion.
What is a hydrogen bond?
-water is bonded by a covalent bond
-the electrons spend more time around the oxygen
-this gives it a slight charge(oxygen-and hydrogen+)
-the hydrogen attracts to oxygen on other molecules
What are waters unique qualities?
-heats efficiently
-ability to bond to itself and other substances easily-
-water dissolves many substances
Water-heats efficently
-takes water a while to heat up and a while to cool down
-prevents overheating
-helps cells maintain their temperature
Adhesion
When a substance interacts with a different substance
ex. meniscus in graduated cylinder-water wants to react with sides or plants-the attraction of the water to the insdies of the tree
Cohesion
an attraction between substances of the same kind
-surface tension:water bonds with water creating a film like saran wrape
-water droplets are formed because of this-allows for a water source for some organisms
What is a heterogeneous mixture?
the mix of 2 different subtances which is not uniformly distributed
What is a homgemous mixture?
A solution!
mix of 2 different substances which are uniformely distrbuted (ex. salt water)
What is a solvent?
What is doing the dissolving
What is a solute?
what is being dissolved
What are carbohydrates?
-organic compounds made of hydrogen, carbon and oxygen
-for every carbon there are 2 hydrogens and 1 oxygen H-C-OH
What are monosaccharides?
-most basic carbohydrates and are also called simple sugars
-the ost important monosaccharides=glucose and fructose, both with 6 carbons
What is glucose?
C6H12O6 in ring form
most useful version of sugar, and where we get our carbon from
what is fructose
C6H12O6
What is an isomer?
something that has the same amount of atoms arranged differently
What is a disaccharide?
2 molecules of monosaccharides together minus H2O
What is sucrose?
Glucose+glucose->(dehydration)sucrose!
What are polysaccharides?
complex carbohydrates composed of many simple sugars
What are polysaccharides used for?
starch-main place for energy storage in plants
glycogen-main place for energy storage in animals
cellulose-most common type of polysaccharide-we can't digest
What are lipids made of?
hydrogen, carbon, oxygen and can contain nitrogen and phosphorus
-contains carboxyl group
-nonpolar and hydrophobic
What are lipids used for?
-energy storing molecules
-making up some of the lining that protects your nerves
-play a role in hormones that regulate blood pressure
-helps body absorb fat soluble vitamins
-present in skin to repel water
-provides cushioning for various body parts
Fats and Oils
fats and oils are made of gycerol and fatty acids
Phospholipids
made of 1 glycerol, 2 fatty acids, phosphate group and nitrogen group
hydrophilic!
unsaturated fatty acid
contains a carbon to carbon double bond
saturated fatty acid
carbon filled with hydrogen
Proteins
controls the chemistry of the cell
-fundamental to the structure of all living things
What are proteins made of?
C, H,N,O may contain sulfur
subunits called animno acids
How do proteins get their characteristics?
the side chain with each amino acid (R-group makes it polar)
What are amino acids?
the subunits of proteins
Explain Protein Bonding
Amino acids bond together using dehydration reaction and covalent bonds.
step 1: OH(aa1) + H (aa2)-> H20
2. e-are shared between carbon and nitrogen (peptide bond)
What is the primary structure?
Shows what amino acids are present in 1 polypeptide chain and in what order
What is the secondary structure?
1. Alpha Helix and Beta pleated sheet
2. polypeptide chain an alpha or beta?
3. helix and sheet are formed when hydrogen bonds occur between amino acids
What is the tertiary structure?
helixes and sheetes of 1 polypeptide chain
What is the quarternary structure?
2 or more polypeptide cahinst hat are independently folded are now folded together and it forms a protein
What is radioactivity?
a property of a substance which emits high energy radiation
What is radiation?
A thing-energy in the form of waves and particles sent over a distance.
What are isotopes?
atoms of the same element but with a different number of neutrons
What is an alpha particle?
2 protons and 2 neutrons
What is a beta particle?
an electron that is released from a neutron to help stabalize the nucleus by decreasing the number of neutrons.
What are gamma rays?
when alpha and beta decay occurs and the atom is left in an excited state. to get to a low energy state they release gamma rays, packets of energy that are released as waves, no charge and practically no mass.
What is half-life?
The time it takes half of all the atoms in a radioactive material to decay.
What is Nuclear Fission?
the process which creates the energy in nuclear power
step 1. free floating neutron is taken in by U-235
2. the atom splits into 2 new atoms,and releases gamma rays (lots of energy!)
What did Becquerel do?
Discovered that uranium already had radioactivity with any external force, and that it was a characteristic of the element itself.
What did Roentgen do?
-produced electromagnetic radiation in a wave lenghth-x-rays!
What did Curie do?
Discovered radium and polonium
What did Einstein do?
E=MC2
What did Meitner do?
Discover Nuclear Fission
What is a prokaryote?
a single celled organism that has free floating Dna
What is a eukaryote?
single or multicellular organism . DNA is enclosed by a membrane.
Cell Membrane
controls what goes in and out of the cell
composed of lipids
2 layers of phospholipids (lipid bilayer) and proteins can be embedded in the bilayer.
What does the golgi apparatus do?
Packages and Labels Proteins
What does the endoplasmic reticulum do?
moves the proteins from the golgi apparatus to various places in a cell.
What is the vacuole?
Pockets of water or other materials.
What is a lysosome?
a vacuole that contains digestive enzymes.
What is the nucleus?
Contains DNA and is a control center for many functions that occur in the cell.
What does the mitochondria do?
creates energy from food
What do chloroplasts do?
create energy in plants
What is the phospholipid bilayer?
The 2 layers of phospholipids that the cell membrane is composed of.
What is passive transport?
how a particle goes through the cell membrane without energy, involves diffusion and facilited transport.
What is diffusion?
the process of molecules moving from a higher concentration to a lower concentration to reach equilibrium
What is osmosis?
how water moves through a plasma membrane (through protein channels)
What is equilibrium?
When there is the same concentration inside and outside the cell.
What is an isotonic solution?
same concentration of the solutes as the cell.
What is a hypertonic solution?
concentration of solutes is higher on the outside than inside the cell. cell shrinks.
what is the hypotonic solution?
the solute is at a higher concentration inside the cell than outside, water moves into the cell and it swells.
What is an ion channel?
A donut shaped protein that has polar openings. controls what comes in and out.
What is a gated ion channel?
an ion channel that is gated shut which can be opened by a change in electrical charge and the binding of specific molecules.
What is facilitated diffusion?
the process of moving molecules from a higher concentration to a lower concentration with the help of a carrier protein.
What is a carrier protein?
a protein that carries specific molecules such as amino acids and carbohydrates.
What is active transport?
movement of molecules across a membrane which goes against the concentration gradient (needs ATP)
What is the sodium-potassium pump?
-active transport
-3 sodium ions bind to the pump anda phosphate group also binds
-pump changes shape, sodium ions are transported across the cell membrane and released outside the cell
-2 potassium ions are outside the cell and bind to the pmp, they're transported across the membrane
-the phosphate group is released the the 2 potassium ions are realeased inside the cell
What is endocytosis?
the movement of a molecule into a cell by a vesicle
step 1-cell membrane forms a pouch around a substance
2. the pouch closes up and pinches off
What is exocytosis?
the movement of a substance by a vesicle to the oustide of a cell.
What is phagocytosis?
taking in food molecules into a cell by a vesicle
What is pinocytosis?
taking in water molecules into a cell by a vesicle.
What is a ligand?
a signal molecule that binds to the receptor portein.
What is the CNS?
central nervous system
controls the body
consists of the brain and spinal cord
What is the PNS?
peripheral nervous system
sensory and motor neurons that branch throughout the body
What is a neuron?
a nerve cell that is able to recieve, encode, and transmit info to other cells.
What is a motor neuron?
a neuron that sends messages from the CNS to muscles and other organs.
What is a sensory neuron?
a neuron that sends info from the sensory organs to the CNS
What is the cerebrum?
the largest part of the brain, holds the capacity for learning, memory, perceptions and intellectual functions
What is the cerebellum?
regulates posture, balance and movement by coordinating the movement of the muscles
What is the brain stem?
epithalamus
thalamus
hypothalamus
midbrain
pons
medulla oblongata
-regulates heart rate, body temp, breathing...
What does the thalamus do?
all sensory processing goes here.
What does the hypothalamus do?
controls the feeling of hunger and thirst, plays a role in heart rate and breathing
What is the spinal cord?
dense cable of nervous cells that run through the vertebral column. links PNS to the brain
What is the dorsal root?
contains sensory neurons that recieve information from areas of sensory input to the CNS
What is the ventral root?
contains motor neurons that carry response form CNS
What is grey matter?
contains cell bodies of neurons
what is white matter?
contains the axons of neurons
neuron-cell body (soma)
contains the nucleus and other organelles
neuron-dendrites
bush like projections that brings info from sensory cells or other neuronsd to the cell body
neuron-axon
long projection that carries info away from the cell body
neuron-axon terminal
swelling of the axon that comes close to another cell
What are glial cells?
cells that support neurons7
What are schwann cells?
found in PNS, they wrap aroudn the axon, then surrounded by layers of plasma membrane-allows nerve impulses to move quicker
What is membrane potential?
describes the difference in charge across the cell membrane
What is resting potential?
membrane potential of a neuron at rest (axon is negative)
What is action potential?
the local reversal of the polarity inside the neuron (axon is positive)
Resting Potential Pumps
-sodium potassium pump allows for the Na+ to be higher concentration on ouside K+ to be higher concentraion on insde
-potassium open channel moves the K+ out of the cell
How action Potential Occurs
1. info is sent into cell body from dendrites, causing cell body to switch polarity
2. triggers sodium voltage gated ion channel to open, sodium moves inside the cell, floods with sodium (more positevely charged ions inside and less outside=Action Potential)
How action potential ends
1. sodium channels are only open for a little bit, no longer is entering but is being pumped out by the sodium potassium pump, more positive ions are leaving than entering
2. potassium voltage gated ion channels also open and more potassiu mis released outside the cell, eventually close as resting potential is reached
What is the presynaptic cell?
the cell that is sending the information
What is the postsynaptic cell?
the cell that is recieving the information
What is a neurotransmitter?
a molecule that is released by the presynaptic neuron, travels across the synapse and excites or inhibits action potential
How do cells communicate?
1. nerve impulse moves down the axon into axon terminal
2. change from - to + due to action potential opens a calcium voltage gated channel Ca+ enters
3. calcium triggers the vesicles to leave using exocytosis-release neurotransmitter into synaptic cleft
4. goes across synaptic cleft and binds to specific receptro mediated sodium ion channel, causes or stops action potential
What is the somatic nervous system?
controlsskeletal muslces that are under voluntary controls
What is spinal reflex?
reaction that is involuntary and rapid-self protecting motor response
What are interneurons?
connect sensory and motor neurons along with connecting themselves
What is the parasympathetic NS?
maintains body under normal conditions and keeps body functioning even when not active
What is the sympathetic NS?
dominated when you are experiencing times of physical or emotional stress.
What are sensory receptors?
specilized neurons that detect external stimuli and converet them to electricul stimuli (nerv impulse)
Thermoreceptors
stimuli: temperature change
location:skin and hypothalamus
role: Helps maintain homeostatis by keeping your body temp. within normal range
Pain receptors
stimuli:tissue damage
location:all tissues and organs except brain
role: decrease tissue damage
What are photoreceptors?
stimuli:light is being bent or moved
location: eyes
role: aid with vision
What is the cornea?
the clear part of the eye that protects the lens, pupil and iris. made of 5 layers of tissue
What is the choroid?
between the sclera and retina and is made of blood vessels that gives your eye nutrients
How do you see?
1. light reflects off an object and then enters the eye through the cornea
2. cornea bends the light to go through the pupil. bending the light allows for sharper focus
3. the iris on either side of the pupil will contract or dilate to control the pupil and control how much light is let in.
4. the light passes through the lens
5. image travels through the vitreous gel
6. the image is placed upisde down on the retina
7. photoreceptors receive the image and change it to an electrical signl
What is accomodation?
the ability for your eye to adjust its focal length
Nearsighted
-the inability of the eye to focus on distant objects
-light is bent more than it needs to be
Farsighted
inability to see objects nearby in focus
-cannot get the curvature you need in your lens
What does the retina do?
converts light rays to electrical messages
What does the vitreous gel do?
image travels through it
What does the lens do?
light passes through it
What does the pupil do?
controls the light going through
What does the iris do?
constricts and dilates pupil
What does the optic nerve do?
connects the image to the brain
What does the macula do?
controls detailed vision
What do cones and rods do?
cones-color, details, bright light
rods-dim light
What are photoreceptors?
stimuli:light is being bent or moved
location: eyes
role: aid with vision
What is the cornea?
the clear part of the eye that protects the lens, pupil and iris. made of 5 layers of tissue
What is the choroid?
between the sclera and retina and is made of blood vessels that gives your eye nutrients
How do you see?
1. light reflects off an object and then enters the eye through the cornea
2. cornea bends the light to go through the pupil. bending the light allows for sharper focus
3. the iris on either side of the pupil will contract or dilate to control the pupil and control how much light is let in.
4. the light passes through the lens
5. image travels through the vitreous gel
6. the image is placed upisde down on the retina
7. photoreceptors receive the image and change it to an electrical signl
What is accomodation?
the ability for your eye to adjust its focal length
Nearsighted
-the inability of the eye to focus on distant objects
-light is bent more than it needs to be
Farsighted
inability to see objects nearby in focus
-cannot get the curvature you need in your lens
What does the retina do?
converts light rays to electrical messages
What does the vitreous gel do?
image travels through it
What does the lens do?
light passes through it
What does the pupil do?
controls the light going through
What does the iris do?
constricts and dilates pupil
What does the optic nerve do?
connects the image to the brain
What does the macula do?
controls detailed vision
What do cones and rods do?
cones-color, details, bright light
rods-dim light
What is focal length?
the distance from the cornea to the retina