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83 Cards in this Set

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What is a dry form of lava that forms like clinkers?
aa
What is a ringlike coral island and reef that nearly or entirely encloses a lagoon?
Atoll
What is a hard, dense, dark volcanic rock composed chiefly of plagioclase, pyroxene, and olivine, and often having a glassy appearance?
Basalt
What is a building sometimes used for earthquakes in which the foundation is seperated from the rest of the building?
Base-isolated building
A mass of rock formed when a large body of magma cooled inside the crust.
Batholith
What is a large crater formed by volcanic explosion or by collapse of a volcanic cone?
Caldera
What is a slow-moving type of lava that hardens to form rough chunks?
aa
The process by which dissolved minerals crystallize and glue particles of sediment together into one mass.
cementation
The process by which sediments are pressed together under their own weight.
compaction
An experiment in which all factors except one are kept constant
controlled experiment
A bowl shaped area that forms around a volcano's central opening.
Crater
The layer of rock that forms earth's outer surface.
crust
A solid in which the atoms are arranged in a pattern that repeats again and again.
crystal
A deep valley along the ocean floor through which oceanic crust slowly sinks towards the mantle.
Deep ocean-trench
The amount of mass in a given space: mass per unit volume.
Density
Term used to describe metamorphic rocks whose grains are arranged in parallel layers or bands.
Foliated
A trace of an ancient organism that has been preserved in rock.
Fossil
The study of planet earth.
Geology
A fountain of water and steam that builds up pressure underground and erupts at regular intervals.
Geyser
A particle of mineral or other rock that gives a rock its texture
grain
A usually light colored rock that is found in continental crust.
Granite
An area where magma from deep within the mantle melts through the crust above it.
Hot spot
Not formed from living things or the remains of living things.
Inorganic
The process by which an earthquakes violent movement suddenly turns loose soil into liquid mud.
Liquefaction
The pocket beneath a volcano where magma collects.
Magma Chamber
The undersea mountain chain where new ocean floor is produced: a divergent plate boundary
Mid-ocean ridge
A naturally occuring, inorganic solid that has a crystal structure and a definite chemical composition.
Mineral
Rock that contains a metal or economically useful mineral.
Ore
Sedimentary rock that forms where remains of organisms are depositied in thick layers.
Organic Rock
The name of the single landmass that broke apart 200 million years ago and gave rise to today's continents.
Pangea
The theory that pieces of earth's lithosphere are in constant motion driven by convection currents in the mantle.
Plate Tectonics
The expulsion of ash, cinders, bombs and gasses during an explosive volcanic eruption.
Pyroclastic Flow
A deep valley that forms where two plates move apart.
Rift Valley
A major belt of volcanoes that rims the Pacific Ocean
Ring of Fire
The process by which molten material adds new oceanic crust to the ocean floor.
Sea-Floor Spreading
Small solid pieces of material that comes from rocks or organisms.
Sediment
A device that records groundmovements caused by seismic waves as they move through earth.
Seismograph
Stress that pushes a mass of rock in opposite directions.
Shearing
A material that is formed from the elements oxygen and silicon; is found in magma
Silica
A slab of volcanic rock formed when magma squeezes between layers of rock.
Sill
The process by which ore is melted to seperate the useful metal from other elements.
Smelting
A device that determines the distance of an object underwater by recording echoes of soundwaves.
Sonar
A force that acts on rock to change its shape/volume.
Stress
A type of fault where rocks on either side move past each other sideways with little up/down movements.
Strike-Slip faults
The process by which oceanic crust sinks beneath a deep ocean trench and back into the mantle at a convergent plate boundary.
Subduction
Stress that stretches rock so that it becomes thinner in the middle.
Tension
The look and feel of a rock's surface determined by the size, shape and pattern of a rocks grains.
Texture
A large wave produced by an earthquake on the ocean floor.
Tsunami
A narrow slab of a mineral that is sharply different from the surrounding rock.
Vein
The opening through which molten rock and gas leave the volcano.
vent
A deposit of hardened magma in a volcano's pipe.
Volcanic Neck
The shape of the land determined by elevation, relief and landforms.
Topography
The difference in elevation between the highest and lowest parts of an area.
Relief
The line that makes a half circle from the North Pole to the South Pole and passes through Greenwich England.
Prime Meridian
Charactaristic of a material that is full of tiny, connected air spaces which water can seep through.
Permeable
A line on a topographic maps that connects different points of elevation.
Contour Line
The difference in elevation from one contour line to the next.
Contour interval
A method of long. and lat. using satellites.
GPS (Global Positioning System)
The process by which water, ice, wind or gravity moves weathered rock and soil.
Erosion
The grinding away of rock by other rock particles carried in water, ice, or wind.
Abrasion
The solid layer of rock beneath the soil.
Bedrock
Process that splits rock when water seeps into cracks then freezes and expands.
Ice wedging
Dark colored organic material in soil.
Humus
Rich, fertile soil made up of about equal parts of clay, sand, and silt.
loam
The loose layer of dead plant leaves and stems on the surface of the soil.
Loam
The loose layer of dead plant leaves and stems on the surface of the soil.
Litter
A thick mass of grass, roots and soil.
Sod
The smallest unit of an element that retains the properties of that element is.....

...A substance composed of a single kind of atom is...

...Two or more atoms together...
...atom....element...compound
What is the connection between clastic rock, chemical rock and organic rock?
Clastic is Sedimentary rock that forms when rock fragments are squeezed togeether under high pressure...

Chemical is sedimentary rock that forms when minerals crystallize to form a solution...

Organic is sedimentary rock that forms where remains of organisms are deposited in thick layers...

These are the three types of sedimentary rock!
What are some of the properties/tables used to classify rocks?
Mohs hardness scale, streak, luster, cleavage, fracture, color, fluorescence etc.
What are the tree different types of volcanoes?
Shield- Wide, gently sloping
Composite- tall, cone shaped with alternating layers of lava and ash.
Cinder cone- Steep, cone-shaped, made of thick lava.
What do constructive and destructive forces do?
Constructive forces build up earth and shape the surface by creating mountains and elevated landforms...

Destructive forces wear away mountains and other features on earth's surface.
What are the three types of boundaries and how do they differ?
Transform- Two plates slip past each other in opposite directions, earthquakes mostly here.

Divergent- The place where two plates move apart, mostly occuring and mid-ocean ridge.

Convergent- Where two plates come together, collision happens and may bring together oceanic crust and continental crust.
What are the two types of igneous rock and how do they differ?
Extrusive- Rock formed from lava that erupted ON EARTH'S SURFACE.

Intrusvie- Rock formed from lava that hardened BENEATH EARTH'S SURFACE.
What is a footwall? What is a hanging wall?
Footwall- The half of the fault that lies below in a normal fault.

Hanging wall- The half of the fault that lies above in a normal fault.
What are the 3 main groups of rock and how are they different?
Igneous, Metamorphic and Sedimentary...

Igneous forms from the cooling of molten rock

Sedimentary forms when particles of other rocks or the remains of plant/animals are pressed and cemented together.

Metamorphic forms when an existing rock is changed by heat, pressure, or chemical reactions.
What are the 3 main groups of rock and how are they different?
Igneous, Metamorphic and Sedimentary...

Igneous forms from the cooling of molten rock

Sedimentary forms when particles of other rocks or the remains of plant/animals are pressed and cemented together.

Metamorphic forms when an existing rock is changed by heat, pressure, or chemical reactions.
What are the four layers of earth and what purpose do they specifically serve?
Crust, Mantle, Core, Inner Core outside-inside
Crust- Rock outer covering
Mantle- Place where convection currents move
Core- liquid, gravitates around Inner Core
Inner Core- Solid, hottest, spins around quickly, very center of the earth.
Think about _____________ currents that occur in the mantle!
What is the difference between lava and magma?

What are features formed by these?
Lava is magma exposed to air!
Magma has not been exposed oxygen!

Batholith, Volcanic neck, sill, dyke
What are the four sections of earth's gases surrounding the planet?
Lithosphere, Bioshpere, Asthenosphere, Atmosphere
What are the four sections of earth's gases surrounding the planet?
Lithosphere, Biosphere, Asthenosphere, Atmosphere
What are the 3 scales for measuring earthquakes and how do they differ?
Mercalli Scale- A scale developed to rate earthquakes according to their intensity.

Richter Scale- A rating of the size of seismic waves as measured by a particular type of seismograph.

Moment Magnitude scale- A rating system that estimates the total energy released by an earthquake, present day device.
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