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24 Cards in this Set

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Define cells.
the basic units of all living things
Define cell theory
Cell theory: a theory that states that cells are the basic units of structure and function of all living things.

New cells are produced from existing cells.

All life processes are carried out by cells
Name the parts of a plant cell.
Plant cell:
1. Cell membrane
2. cell wall
3. chloroplasts
4. chromosomes
5 cytoplasm
6. mitochondria
7. nuclear membrane
8. nucleus
9. vacuoles
Name the parts of an animal cell.
1. cell membrane
2. chromosomes
3. cytoplasm
4. mitochondria
5. nuclear membrane
6. nucleus
7. vacuoles
What parts does a plant cell have that an animal cell doesn't.
cell wall
chloroplasts
define diffusion.
the tendency of a substance to move from an area of greater concentration to an area of lesser concentration
define osmosis.
the diffusion of water through a membrane.

the balance of water inside and outside of a cell is maintained with osmosis
define photosynthesis and the equation to show this process.
The process by which light energy is used to make food

equation: carbon dioxide + water and light= sugar + oxygen

oxygen is a waste product in this process
Define cell respiration

What is the equation to show this process.

Where does this process take place.
the process of using oxygen to release stored energy by breaking down sugar molecules.

equation: sugar+oxygen (yields) carbon dioxide + water + energy

Takes place in mitochondria of both plant and animal cells.
Define fermentation.

What waste product is produced.
A chemical change in which an organism breaks down sugar to produce carbon dioxide and alcohol or lactic acid.

Waste product produced is called lactic acid.
Define Mitosis.
The process in which one cell divides to form two identical new cells.

the new cells have the same number of chromosomes as the parent cell
Define cell differentiation.
The development of cells into different and specialized cell types.

plant and animal cells develop into tissues through this process.
Define tissues.
Groups of similar, specialized cells that work together to do a specific job
Define organ.
A part of an multicellular organism made up of a group of tissues that work together to perform a certain function.
Define organ system.
A group of organs that work together to do a job

example: digestive system
Define cell membrane.
Holds the cell together and lets substances pass in and out of the cell.
Define cell wall.
found in plant cells and some protists but not in animal cells. It is stiff and gives a rigid shape to the cell.
Define chloroplasts.
Organells in some plant and protist cells. They contain chlorophyll, a substance that enables plants to store solar(sun) energy.
Define chromosomes.
Structures inside the nucleus that are made up of genes. Genes carry the code for all the cell's traits and its activities.
Define cytoplasm.
the watery gel inside the cell. various structures called organells are found in the cytoplasm.
Define mitochondria.
Organelles in which energy is released from food.
Define nuclear membrane.
Allows substances to pass in and out of the nucleus.
Define nucleus.
Controls cell activities.
Define vacuoles.
Spaces in the cytoplasm where food and chemicals are stored.