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133 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
A meterologist is one who...
studies the atmosphere
A way in which scientists answer questions and solve prolems is called...
the scientific method
Pieces of information collected through experimentation are called...
What are the steps (in proper sequence) for the scientific method?
1) Question
2) Hyptothesis
3) Test
4) Analysis
5) Draw Conclusions
6) Communication
After swimming in the ocean, Jim noticed that as he sat in the sun small white crystals formed on his skin. Using a scientific method,what is a reasonable explanation?
Saltwater evaporated off Jim's skin leaving behind crystalline salt
The smalles particle into which an element can be divided and still be the same substance is called:
an atom
The existence of subatomic particles was first demonstrated by
Thomson's cathode ray tube
One Atomic Mass Unit (AMU) is equal to
EITHER the mass of one proton
or the mass of one neutron
If the number of protons and electrons within an atom is not the same, the atom becomes
a charged particle called an ion
Name the two kinds of ions
cations and anions
An isotope is an atom with the same number of protons and electrons, however a different number of:
Boron-11 has 5 protons and 6 neutrons. What is its mass number?
What element as an ion is used to purify (disinfect)water to make it safe for drinking?
Which alkalai metal can be cut with a common paring knife and is highly reactive to water?
Which alakline-earth metal is x-ray detectable, can be ingested by humans and is therefore used as a detection agent in upper gastrointestinal (upper GI) examinations?
Of the following metals, which is designated as a transition metal in the periodic table?
a) cobalt
b) zinc
c) iron
d) all of the above
d) all of the above
Carbon-12 is the most abundant element in organic compounds. In fact, an isotope of Carbon-12 (14) is radioactive and used for what specific purpose?
radiocarbon dating of natural fossils
Which of the following is an ionic compound?
a) acetone
b) cyclohexane
c) benzene
d) calcium sulphate
d) calcium sulphate
Table salt is a compound composed of what elemental atoms?
sodium and cholrine
Which of the following compounds will conduct electricity in solution?
a) table salt
b) gasoline
c) diesel fuel
d) sugar
a) table salt
When electrons are shared between two atomic nuclei, the bond that is formed is said to be:
Which of the following compounds is considered to be an acid?
a) HCl
b) HNO3
d) all of the above
d) all of the above
(they are hydrochloric, nitric, and sulfulric acid)
A compound is tested and found to have a pH of 6.0. Is the compound considered to be acidic or alkaline?
If pH is calculated as the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration, what is the pH of a compound with hydrogen ion concentration of 1 x 10^-5?
An organic compound containing carbon to carbon double bonds is know by which of the following nomenclatures?
a) alkene
b) alkane
c) alkyne
d) cyclohexane
b) alkene
Many foods today are touted as having polyunsaturated fatty acids. Which of the following statements is true about polyunsaturate fatty acids?
a) They are thougth to be healthier to eat than saturated fats
b) polyunsaturated fatty acides have two or more caron-carbon doule bonds
c) they help reduce blood cholesterol
d) all of the above
d) all of the above
Organic ester compounds are hydrocarbon molecules containing at least one -OR bond and one C=O bond off the same caron atom such as ethyl propanoate (C2H5COOC2H2). What is true of ester compounds?
They generally have pleasant smells and are used for flavorings and fragrances
The Fahrenheit temperature of Antarctica is -40 degrees. What temperature is this on the Centigrade scale using th formula: C=(5/9)x(F-32)?
-40 degrees C
What is "heat" defined as?
the transfer of energy between objects at different temperatures
What is the definition of "specific heat capacity"?
The amount of energy required to raise one kilogram of a substance one degree Centigrade
Which of the following temperatures is the lowest?
a) 212 deg F
b) 100 deg C
c) 75 deg C
d) 75 deg F
B) 40 Deg C
A wave is any disturbance which can transmit energy through time or space. Which of the following could be classified as a wave form?
a) radio transmission
b) solar energy from the sun
c) sound
d) all of the above
d) all of these are waves
By what measure is the frequency of a wave expressed?
Herz (cycles per second)
What is the frequency of a wave if the wave has a speed of 12 cm/s and a wavelength of 3 cm?
Four per second or
4 Hz
What are the two wave interactions that occur when a wave encounters a barrier?
diffraction and reflection
Two waves of equal amplitude, but flowing from opposite directions, collide with one another. What happens?
they make a wave much bigger than either one individually
Waves that require a medium are called ___________ waves, and waves that do not require a medium ar called ___________ waves.

A wave that is a combination of longitudinal and transverse waves is called a _________________
surface wave
Sound is carried by waves. If we consider the atmosphere on a standard day at sea level static conditions, the speed of sound is about 761 mph, or 1100 feet/second. A lightning strike is observed in the distance an the report is heard 24 seconds later. How far away is the storm which generated this lightning strike?
5.0 miles or 26,400 feet
WRR of Dallas-Fort Worth Area broadcasts on 101.1 FM. What is the frequency of the WRR classical music broadcasts?
101.1 megahertz
Human hearing is a complex set of physical interactions which start by a sound traversing the ear canal (pinna) and striking the:
The most common form of human hearing loss is one called tinnitus. Which of the statements are true about tinnitus?
a. often caused by prolonged exposure to loud noise
b. people with tinnitus often report a "ringing" in their ears
c. tinnitus can strike an individual of any age.
d. all of the above
d. all of the above
An apparent change in the frequency of a sound caused by the motion of either the listener or the source is called:
the Doppler effect
Ultrasonic waves will reflect (or bounce) off of stationary objects including human internal organs and bones can produce a skeletal like image. This type of medical imaging is called:
If an object travels four (4) times fastser than the speed of sound it is said to be traveling at what speed?
4,400 feet per second
Mach 4
A person plays trumpet in the local band. How is the sound actually produced?
The player's lips vibrate rpoducing a sound which is modulated by pusing the valves and changing the length of the air column
Instruments which produce sound when struck belong to which family?
The scientific genus and species for the "killer whale" are....
Orcinus orca
What is the world's largest living mammal?
the blue whale
Which of the following elements is supplied to a leguminous plant in the modules found on its roots?
Each strand of a DNA molecule has a backbone - that is composed of alternating...
sugar and phosphate molecules
Which of the following interactions is generally the strongest?
a. hydrogen bonding
b. dipole
c. ionic
d. vander Waal's forces
Blue-green and red algae, diatoms, larval and adult forms of small insects, crustaceans, molllusks, and small fishes don't sound too appetizing' however, they make up the main diet of what?
A popular baleen whale is the blue whale. Which of the following staements is true of blue whales?
a. Each lobe of the tail is called a fluke.
b. use their pectoral flippers mainly to steer.
c. like the flukes, the dorsal fin is made of dense, fibrous connective tissue
d. all of the above.
d. all of the above
Which of the following is(are) true about baleen?
a. they are an adaptation of filter feeding on specific whale types
b. they are composed of keratin (a protein)
c. both a and b
d. none of the above
c. both a and b
Which of the following animals can be described as cold-blooded?
a. bony fish
b. polar bears
c. bengal tigers
d. none of these
a. bony fish
What does it mean when an animal is described as warm-blooded?
Its internal body temperature is constant
The tissue that lines all interal surfaces is called
SARS is a recent strain of a viral disease that has caused great health and econoic disaster in Asian countries. SARS is an acronym that stands for ...
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome
An air traffic controller orders a passenger jet to turn to heading 180 and climb to 9,000. Which direction will it be flying after obeying the order?
It has recently been discovered (via telescope) that the planet Mars may contain frozen subterranean lakes (water). What is the significance of this discovery?
Water may indicate the presence of life.
Sound travels at the rate of 0.2 miles per second (1,056 feet per second or roughly 720 miles per hour). You are in the center field stand at the Ballpark in Arlington and see a batter hit a homerun into the seat in front of you. You hear the bat crack approximately 0.4 sec later. How far are you away from home plate?
422 feet
(0.4 x 1,056 feet)
What name describes a surgical procedure performed on the human brain?
Light travels at 35.2 miles per second or 1,110,927,273 miles per year. The distance from the eart to its closest star (Proxima Centauri) is 4.2 light-years. How far away is Proxima Centauri?
4.7 billion miles

(4.2 light years x the speed of light)
The Cassini probe heading toward Saturn will reach speeds of 18,720 kilometers per hour (11,700 mph). Saturn is 142,700,000 km away from the earth. How long will it take Cassini to reach Saturn's orbit (approximately)?
318 days

(142,700,000 km / 18,720 km/hr) / 24 hours/day
The radioactive half-life of Carbon-14 is 5,730 years. It breaks down into Nitrogen-14. A scientist measures the quantity of C-14 and N-14 in a piece of wood and finds a Carbon to Nitrogen ration of 1:3. How old is the piece of wood?
11,460 years
Which of the following kingdoms is INCORRECTLY matched with a characteristic of the kingdom?
a. Fungi - multicellular heterotrophs
b. Animalia - multicellular heterotrophs
c. Monera - unicellular autotrophs or htereotrophs
d. Protista - multicellular autotrophs or heterotrophs
D is incorrect. Protists are unicellular
Approximately how old is the earth based on radiometric dating?
4.5 billion years
Trilobites are an extinct species believed to be 200 million years old. Many fossils have been found. Which of the following is true of triolobites?
a. Their bodies consist of three separate sections (cephalon, thorax ans pugidium).
b. their exoskeleton consists of three separate lobes running the length of their body.
c. They may have been the first organisms to view the world through complex eyes.
D. All of the above
D. They are all true
Which is the most abundant gas in the atmosphere?
The primary function of the endosperm in a seed is ??
food storage
A weatherman has reported a relative humidity of 60%. If it takes 22 g/m3 of moisture to saturate the air at 25 degrees C, whatis the concentration of moisture in the air?
13.2 g/m3

(multiply 0.6 x 22 g/m)
State Newton's first law of motion...
An object will remain at rest or move in a straight line at contant speed unless acted upon by a force
What animal gets its color from eating algae and insects?
The pituitar gland is controlled by the
Which of the following is the smallest neutral atom?
a. F
b. Li
c. Be
d. O
a. F (fluorine)
Pencil lead is actually a form of which element?
The wings of a bird and the wings of an insect are structurally different from each other and have different embryonic origins, yet they perform essentially the same function. The two different types of wings are examples of
analagous structures
How much of the earth's atmosphere is oxygen?
Which of these animals is a vertebrate?
a. slug
b. ant
c. earthworm
d. horse
d. horse
A sample contains 89.8% oxygen and 10.2% hydrogen by mass, and is gaseous and explosive at room temperature. Is the sample a mixture or a compound?
It is a mixture
How much heat would be needed to raise the temperature of 20 kg of iron from 30 degrees to 100 degrees C? The specific heat capacity of iron is 448 J/kg degrees C.
627,200 Joules

(Just multiply 70 degrees, the temperature change, times the specific heat capacity times 20, the number of kilograms)
What unit could you use to measure the temperature of an object?
a. Farad
b. Kelvin
c. Henry
D. Tesla
b. Kelvin
All isotopes of the element iron contain how many protons?
26 protons
To find a sphere's volume one could use what formula?
V = (4/3)(pi)r3
How did Ernest Rutherford discover the nucleus of an atom?
He shot alpha particles at a piece of gold foil.
When was the first time man walked on the moon?
The constant process by which rocks are formed and continue to change is called
the rock cycle
Rocks that form from magma below the surface of the earth are called?
intrusive rocks
Which of the following does not directly depend on friction for its behavior?
a. walking
b. a knot in a rope
c. disk brakes
d. boat anchor
d. a boat anchor
In the 1960s a new theory was developed wich considered both continental drift and seafloor spreading. This theory was know as...
plate tectonics
Which of the following types of blood cells is responsible for destroying foreign bacteria and cleaning wounds?
a. red blood cells
b. pathogens
c. platelets
d. white blood cells
d. white blood cells
How many chambers does the human heart have, and what are their names?
4 - atriums and ventricles
The circulatory system carries oxygen by way of the blood supplied by the lungs into every cell of the body. Which molecule in particular is responsible for carrying the oxygen?
Which of the following is not a part of the respiratory system?
a. lung
b. bronchi
c. diaphragm
d. thymus
d. thymus
People who smoke cigarettes are slowly eroding the tissue in their lungs responsible for oxygen uptake and distribution. Which diease has smoking not been found by current research to cause?
a. emphysema
b. diabetes
c. lung cancer
d. bronchitis
b. diabetes
It has recently been recognized that individuals burn calories at different rates (metabolism). It is also recognized that approximately 3500calories = 1 pound of body weight. An eighth grader byrns 3500 calories per day, but eats two Big Macs (with cheese), a coke and a large order of french fries (total calories of 2193 calories). What percentage of his daily intake has been consumed? Will he lose or gain weight if no other food is consumed that day?
62.7% and lose weight
They are naturally occurring, inorganic solids with definite chemical compositions and an orderly arrangement of atoms.
Crystals generally have smoot hsides and are arranged inorderly repeating patterns. Scientists often determine a molecule's crystalline structure using what process?
X-Ray Diffraction crystallography
A crystal said to be cubic in nature is what structure?
Equal on all sides in three principle directions
Silicates are abundant mineral compositions on earth's surface. A silicate is composed of what two elements?
silicon and oxygen
What is the hardest mineral according to the Mohs scale?
Ilmenite and Rutile are minerals that form when magma cools and solidifies. These minerals contain titanium. The titanium is extracted and used for what consumer goods?
golf club shafts, sunglass frames, lightweight wheelschair parts, hip and knee replacement implants
When scientists do outstanding research that is recognizable by their peers as "leading edge" and contribute to the furtherance of mankind, they may be nominated for a distiguished award called the
Nobel Prize
The San Andreas Fault is a famous crack in the continental United States along which many earthquakes occur. It is a "transform" boundary. In which state is the San Andreas Fault primarily located?
Earthquakes are measured accrding to their intesnity measured by what scale?
The Richter Scale
What is a tsunami?
A large tidal wave of displaced water due to the plate movement under water
In the past few years, major eruptions have occurred all over the earth's surface. What eruption took place in the continental United States?
Mt. St. Helens
The volume of a gas is inversely proportional to the pressure exerted on it at contstant tempreatures according to the formula P1V1 = P2 V2, where P and V represent the presure and volume of aparticular gas at two different conditions ( 1 and 2). If coarbon dioxide occupies 1 cubic meter at 1 atmosphere, what would its volume be at 2.5 atmospheres?
0.4 cubic meters
The center of all life is DNA. DNA is located in the nucleus of the human cell and excretes proteins specific to life functions. A protein is a complex biochemical molecule composed of what?
amino acids
It was once thought tha teach human gene within DNA secreted one protein and therefore accounted for all human traits; however, there are only 30,000 genes and over 300,000 proteins already identified. How does one explain this phenomenon?
One gene may express more than one protein
A change in the molecular structure, arrangement, or molecular sequence of a gene is called ?
During the human reproduction cycle, male and female contribute chormosomes. Males contribute an xy chromosome and females contribute a yy chromosome. Which of the two determines the sex of the fetus?
the male
The individual(s) who are attributed with defining the physical structure of DNA (double helix, or twisted ladder are...
Watson and Crick
The process by which individual animal species possessing favorable traits survive and reproduce is called...
natural selection
When two animal species have a very close relationship they are calledd symbiotic. Name 3 types of symbiotic relationships.
parasitism, commensalism, and mutualism
In some plants, the allele for round seeds (S) is dominant over wrinkled seeds (s). What are the four possible resulting genotypes if two parents with the Ss genotypes are crossed?
SS, Ss, Ss, and ss
Earth's resources can be conserved best by
a. the actions of industry
b. reducing the use of non-renewable resources
c. people doing whatever they wish
d. throwingg away all our trash
b. reducing the use of non-renewable resources
From the following data, predict what the approximate ozone level in October 2000.
Year: 1960 - ozone level (DU) 300
Year: 1970 - ozone level (DU) 280
Year: 1980 - ozone level (DU) 235
Year: 1990 - ozone level (DU) 190
approximately 150 DU
With respect to the ocean, a tide is defined as the alternate rising and falling of the waters of the ocean, and of bays and bodies of water connected therewith. How many times a day does the ocean ebband flow?
Approximately twice per lunar day
Which of the following is not a cephalopod?
a. squid
b. shrimp
c. octupus
d. cuttlefish
b. shrimp is not a cephalopod
Which of the following animals actually has three hearts?
a. elephant
b. domestic cow
c. octopus
d. squid
c. octopus
Human blood pressure is measures with two measurements in millimeters of mercury. A typical huam blood pressure is 120/75. One measurement is taken when the heart contracts to squeeze blood out and the other is when the heart is at rest. What are these two measurements called?
systolic and diastolic
How many chromosomes ar ethere in the human zygote?
46 (23 pairs)
How much of the earth's surface is covered by water?
The ocean currents in the Northern Hemisphere turn clockwise while similar currents in the Southern Hemisphere turn counterclockwise. What causes this phenomenon?
the Coriolis effect
An extract of thhis arthropod's blood is used by the pharmaceutical industries to ensure that their products, e.g., vaccines, are free of bacterial contamination. Which animal is being described?
Horseshoe Crab (Limulus polyphemus)
Contour lines on a weather map which connect points of equal air pressure are called ...
Of the water sources on the earth (and under it), what percentage is seawater, and therefore unusable by man for drinking?
Tidal range is the smallest during which tide (ebb, rip, neap, or spring)?
Neap tide is the smallest range
This marine mammal can live in either fresh or salt water and typically resides very close to the surface where it often collides with motorboats (particulary in Florida). They are often affectionately called a "sea cow." Which animal is being described?
a manatee
The gray whale has the longest migration route of any known animal. They travel back and forth from Baja, California to Alaska. This migration routhe (one way) is approximtely how far?
3000 miles
Since whales and dolphiins are mammals and breathe air, can they live out of water?
Yes, but only while breaching (and short periods), as they would tend to overheat and sunburn