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52 Cards in this Set

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If the air hole on a Bunsen burner is CLOSED, describe the flame and its colour, and the reason it should be used.
CLOSED: Nearly transparent, Blue flame. Used for heating solids. Very hot. Roaring.
If the air hole is OPEN, describe the flame and its colour, and the reason it should be used.
OPEN: Big, Yellow flame. May leave black soot. Used for safety, when away from the burner. Quiet.
If the air hole is HALF OPEN, describe the flame and its colour, and for what reason it should be used.
HALF OPEN: Blue/Yellow flame, medium heat. Used for heating most liquids and other materials. Noisy.
Where is the hottest part of the flame? The coldest?
The hottest part of the flame is the tip of the inner flame, and the coldest is the bottom part.
What is the word equation for Respiration?
"GO-CD WE"; Glucose+Oxygen=Carbon Dioxide+Water+Energy
Name the SEVEN life processes.
MRSGREN; Movement, Respiration, Sensetivity, Growth, Reproduction, Excretion, Nutrition.
Which of the seven life processes is a chemical reaction that happens in all living cells to release energy from food?
Respiration.
What gas is needed for this chemical reaction to take place?
Oxygen.
What is Respiration?
The chemical reaction involving the breakdown of glucose using the gas oxygen to release energy.
Why is energy needed?
It helps keep us warm, for us to grow and for contractions. Also to keep us going.
What is ACCURACY?
Accuracy is when you provide the correct reading or measurement.
What is RELIABILITY?
Reliability is when you get the same result each time you try.
Why do we need food?
We need food to grow and repair damaged cells and tissues. It helps us stay healthy and prevents desiese.
What are Carbohydrates? Why do we need them?
We need Carbohydrates for Respiration, to release energy. EG: rice, bread, cereals, potatoes, pasta. Sugar and Starch.
What are Proteins? Why do we need them?
We need Proteins for growth, and repairing our cells and tissues. Muscle and skin tissue and hair. EG: eggs, meat, lentils, cheese, nuts, milk.
What are Fats/Lipids? Why do we need them?
We need Fats/Lipids for warmth and a food store to be broken down to release energy. EG: milk, vegie oil, cheese, butter, fried food, meat, cream.
What are Fibres? Why do we need them?
We need Fibres to help food pass through the digestive system. EG: beans, wholemeal bread, fruit, vegies, lentils, cereals.
What are Vitamins and Minerals? Why do we need them?
We need Vitamins and Minerals to help us stay healthy. Vitamin C helps us to make skin and gum tissue and heal wounds. Calcium helps us build bone tissue and Iron to make red blood cells. EG: fish, fruit, vegies, red meats, liver, milk.
What is Water? Why do we need it?
We need water to carry substances around our body. About 80% of your body is made of water!
Describe testing for Starch.
Needed: Iodine Colour Changes: Brown to Blue/Black.
Describe testing for Sugar.
Needed: Benedict's Solution Colour Changes: Blue to Brown/Orange/Red
Describe testing for Protein.
Needed: Biuret Test Colour Changes: Clear to Purple
Describe testing for Fat.
Needed: Smear the food onto filter paper Colour Changes: When held up to light, goes transparent.
Why do we need a Digestive System?
We need a Digestive System so that large food substances can be broken down into small food molecules that can get into and be used by cells.
From STARCH to:
Sugar Molecules. By Amylase.
From PROTEIN to:
Amino Acids. By protease.
From FATS/LIPIDS to:
Fatty acids and Glycerol. By lipase.
What do enzymes do?
Enzymes break down large food substances into smaller food substances so they can be absorbed into the bloodstream.
Why can't Fibre be broken down?
It cannot be broken down because it is made of cellulose. Our digestive system doesn't have the enzyme CELLULASE to do this.
What is a balanced diet?
A balanced diet is when you get all of the necessary nutrients in an equal way.
Regular excersize is also needed.
Describe an OMNIVORES teeth.
Omnivores have all teeth; incisors, canines and molars. They eat both plant materials and meat. Their teeth are made of dentine, they do not eat wet food.
Describe a CARNIVORES teeth.
Carnivores have canines, teeth for chewing and ripping meat. Both their back and front teeth are sharp. Eat meat.
Describe a HERBIVORES teeth.
Herbivores have both incisors and molars, teeth for cutting the food (incisors) and for grinding (molars). Have very sharp incisors for biting off plants. Eat only plants.
What is the name of the enzyme found in saliva?
Amylase.
Where does the absorbtion of molecules take place?
The small intestine.
How does food move through the digestive system?
Contraction of muscles.
What is an example of how the small intestine absorbs molecules?
The Visking Tubing Experiment.
Describe BILE.
Bile IS NOT AN ENZYME. It is made in the liver and stored in the gallbladder. Bile splits large blobs of fat molecules into smaller ones to increase the surface area to help lipase work.
What causes sound?
Sound is made when an object vibrates. When it vibrates, the air particles surrounding it knock into each other, producing Kinetic energy, producing sound. This is why you cannot hear sound in space, or in a vacuum.
How does sound travel?
Sound travels in waves.
How fast does sound travel?
Sound travels at about 340 m/s.
Why do you hear the thunderclap AFTER seeing the lightening?
Light travels faster that sound, about one million times faster. This is why you see the thunder BEFORE you hear it.
In what substance does sound travel the fastest through?
Sound travels the fastest through SOLIDS. There are more paricles together, so it won't take long to pass on the movement.
Why do sounds ECHO?
Sounds echo because the sound is reflected off a surface. Hard surfaces reflect better than soft surfaces, because soft surfaces absorb the sound.
What is AMPLITUDE?
The loudness of a sound depends on the amplitude of the vibrations. Amplitude is half of a wave. The bigger the vibrations, the bigger the amplitude of the wave.
What is PITCH?
Pitch is how high or low the sound sounds. The pitch of a sound depend on the frequency of the vibrations that cause it.
What is FREQUENCY?
The frequency of a sound is the amount of complete waves or vibrations that go past a particular place every second. Frequency is measured in HERTZ.(Hz.)
What is a human's audible range?
Roughly between 20Hz and 20,000Hz. Different people have different audible ranges.
What is ULTRASOUND?
Ultrasound is sounds with frequencies too high for us to hear.
What is INFRASOUND?
Infrasound is sounds with frequencies too low for us to hear.
What is noise measured in?
Noise is measured in Decibels (dB.)
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