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45 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
abyssal plain
any of the large, flat aras on the ocean floor
acceleration
the rate of change or speed or direction
accuracy
a measure of how close an instrument comes to the international standard
acid
a chemical that produces hydrogen ions when dissolved in water
alloy
a mixture of metal and another substance, usually improving on one or more properties of the original metal
amplitutde
the maximum distance a wave vibrates up and down from equilibrium
asteroid
a minor planet orbiting the Sun; most are found in a belt between Mars and Jupitar
astrolabe
a astronomical instrument invented by medieval rabs to calculate the position of celestial bodies
atom
the smallest particle of an element that has all the element's chemical properties
atomic mass
the combined number of protons and neutrons in an atom
atomic number
the number of protons in an atom's nucleous
bar graph
a graphic representation of data on similar things
base
a chemical substance that generates hydroxide ions when it dissolves in water
bias
a perspective that affects the way in which people interpret events and form beliefs
big bang theory
a theory that the universe began 10 to 20 billion years ago with an explosion from a single point and continues to expand outward
calorie
the scientific unit of heat measurement; 1 carie is the amount of heat energy needed to raise the temperature of 1g of water by 1 degree C
chemical bond
the force that connects molecules to one another
chemical reaction
the process by which valence electrons of one atom form bonds with the valence electrons of another atom
circle graph
a graphic representation of data showing percentages of a whole
claim
an assertion of truth
climate
weather conditions and patterns common to an area over long periods of time; includes rainfall, temperature, and atmospheric conditions
cloning
the process by which the nucleus of an animal's egg cell is replaced by the genetic material from regular animal body cell; can be used to create genetically identical tissues of even individuals
coefficient
a number used to balance a chemical equation so that the number of atoms of reactants and products are equal
combustibility
the ability of a chemical substance to burn
comet
a relatively small body made of rock, gases, and ice that was likely formed outside our solar system and now orbits the Sun
compound
a chemical substance that is made up of two or more different kinds of atoms that are bonded together
compressional boundary
the meeting zone of two tectonic plates at a reverse fault; the plates move into each other
condensation
the phrase change at which a gas cools and changes to a liquid form
conduction
a form of heat tranfer in which heat moves through an object without the object moving itself
conductivity
the property of a material that describes how easily it accepts of passes on electrons
conservation of energy
a scientific law that states that energy is neither created nor destroyed in any system but simply changes form
conservation of mass
a scientific law that states that the mass of the reactant will always be equal to the mass of the product: in other words, mass neither created nor destroyed in any system but simply changes form
constraint
any factor that increases the difficulty of a science investigation or limits the accessibility of scientific data
continental drift
the theory that states the continents are in slow motion atop a semiliquid mantle
continental shelf
the area of the ocean floor just off the coast
continental slope
the steep drop from the continental shelf to the ocean floor
convection
the movement of fluid masses from areas of high density to low density due to temperature or salinity differences
convection current
large-scale movement patterns of material due to differences in density
core
the innermost region of the Earth; it has two layers, the molten {liquid} outer core and the solid inner core
covalent bonds
a bond between elements in which the atoms share electrons
crest
the high point of a wave
crust
the outer layer of the Earth
crustal plate
one of the sections of the Earth's crust
data
information that decribes events of things, such as temperatures
decompostion reaction
a reaction in which a single substance is broken down into twoor more simplex substances