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55 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
minimum amount of energy thathas to be added to get a chemical reaction started
activation energy
a solid that forms from a solution during a chemical reaction
precipitate
the combination of two or more atoms
molecule
number in a chemical formula that tells the number of atoms in a molecule or the ratio of elements in compound
subscript
a substance that enters into a chemical reaction
reactants
a substance formed as a result of a chemical reaction
products
the principle stating that matter is not created or destroyed during a chemical reaction
conservation of mass
a number in front of achemical formula in an equation that indicated how many molecules or atoms of each reaaactant and product are involved in a reaction
coefficient
reaction that releases energy in the form of heat
exothermic reaction
reaction that absorbs energy in the form of heat
endothermic reaction
amount of one material in a certain volume of another material
concentration
material that increases the rate of a chemical reaction by lowering the activation energy
catalyst
a biological catalyst that lowers the activation energy in cells
enzyme
meterial that decreases the rate of reaction
inhibitor
rapid reaction between oxygen and fuel that results in fire
combustion
representation of the number of valence electrons in an atom, using dots placed around the symbol of an element
electron dot diagram
atom or group o fatoms that has become electrically charged
ion
attraction between oppositely charged ions
ionic bond
an ion that is made up of more than one atom
polyatomic ion
an orderly, three dimensional pattern of ions or atoms in a solid
crystal
a compound consisting of molecule of covalently bonded atoms
molecular compound
description of a covalent bon in which electrons are shared unequally, or a molecule containing polar bonds that do not cancel out
polar
description of a covalent bond in which electrons are shared equally, or of a molecule containing nonplolar bonds, or polar bonds that cancel out
nonpolar
naturally ocurring solid that has a crystal structure and a definite chemical composition
mineral
an element in group 1 of the periodic table
alkali metal
an element in Group 2 of the periodic table
alkali earth metal
a mixture of two or more metals
alloy
a solid made up of particle that are not arranged in a regular patter
amorphous solid
average mass of one atom of an element
atomic mass
unit ised to measure the mass of particles in atoms, proton and neutron has mass of 1
atomic mass unit (amu)
the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
atomic number
temperature at which a substance changes from liquid to gas
boiling point
temperature at which a substance changes from solid to liquid
melting point
relationship between the pressure and volume of gas, when volume increases pressure decreases
Boyle's law
A- COOH group, found in organic acids
carboxyl group
a quality of a substance that never changes and can be used to identify the substance
characteristic property
relationship between the temperature and volume of gas, when temp. increases volume increase
Charle's law
process by which an electic current breaks chemical bonds
electrolysis
an - OH group, found in alcohols
hydroxyl group
principle that the total amount of energy remains the same during physical or chemical change
law of conservation of energy
description of a molecule that shows the kind, number, and arrangement of atoms
structural formula
a hydrocarbon in which one or more hydrogen atoms have been replaced by atoms of other elements
substituted hydrocarbon
change of state from liquid to gas
vaporization
resistance of a liquid to flowing
viscosity
chemical activity/chemical bond/ chemical change/physical change
chemical activity- characteristic property of a substance that indicates its ability to undergo a specific chemical change
chemical bond- force that holds two atoms together
chemical change- change inwhich two or more combine to form new substances
physical change- change of state not identity
periodic table/ organization/characteristic properties/groups/metal nonmetal metalloid
arranged by increasing atomic number, each group has similar characteristic properties such as reactiveness 17 nonmetals 7 metalloids and the rest are metals
polymer/monomer
a polymer is a larger molecule in the form of a chain which is made up of monomers
compound/substance/mixture/mineral/pure substance
mixture- two or more substance that are mixed but not chemically combined
substance- best mixed mixture
compound-two or more elements chemically combine
mineral- simple element needed bny body not organic
pure substance- made of only one kind of matter and having definite properties
the amount of how much mass of a substance is contained in a given volume
density
carbon atoms/organic compounds/fullerene/electron
diamonds- form of the element carbon, hardest mineral crystal on earth
fullerene- form of carbon that consists of of carbon atoms arranged in a repeating pattern similar to soccer ball
organic compounds- most compounds that contain carbon
chemical reaction/ equation/ formula
reaction- process in which substances undergo chemical changes, forming new substances
equation- short easier way way to show chemical reactions, using symbols
formula- combination of symbols that represent elements in a compound
chemical bonds/ionic/ covalent/double
chemical bond- force that holds two atoms together
ionic- attraction between two oppositely charged ions
covalent- bond formed when two atoms share electrons
double- when atoms share 2 pairs of electrons
ions/charge/gaining and losing electrons
when an atom loses an electron it becomes a positive ion, when it gains one it becomes a negative ion
crystals/ions
crystals- an orderly, three dimensional pattern of ions or atoms in a solid
ions are attracted to other ions with an opposite charge
crystals/ions
crystals- an orderly, three dimensional pattern of ions or atoms in a solid
ions are attracted to other ions with an opposite charge