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54 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
How are force, work, power, and energy related??
transfer of energy is work, power is the rate at which energy is transferred,or the amount of energy transferred in one unit of time
2 kinds of Potential Energy:
-Gravitational PE
-Elastic PE
6 types of energy:
nuclear~electrical~ electromagnetic
Mechanical Energy
the Kinetic and Potential E of an object
Electrical Energy
Energy of electric charges
Chemical Energy
Potential energy stored in the chemical bonds in the chemical compounds of an object
Electromagnetic Energy
Energy transmitted in waves with electrical and magnetic properties
Nuclear Energy
Potential energy stored in the nucleus of an atom
Thermal Energy
the total kinetic and potential energy in the particles of an object
Energy Transformation
change from one form of energy to another
Law of Conservation of Energy(or mass)
During the transfer of energy, no energy can be created or destroyed
Energy Transfer for a match
mechanical~thermal(friction)~chemical~thermal~ electromagnetic
How can energy be created??
by desroying matter
fossil fuels
coal, petroleum, and natural gas; energy released through combustion
anything that has mass and takes up space
3 types of matter:
solids, liquids, and gases
2 types of solids:
crystalline, and amorphous
particles in a solid are ...
a fixed, closely packed arrangement. solids have definate shape and volume
particles in a liquid are ...
free to move. a liquid has no definate shape, but has a definate volume
What is a fluid??
a substance that flows; liquid or gas
surface tension
result of an inward pull among the molecules on the surface of a liquid; causes skin like barrier on surface
a liquids resistance to flowing; high viscosity-slow flowing, low viscosity-quick flowing
Particles in a gas ...
spread apart to fill all available space; have no definate volume or shape
Chemical Properties of matter
descirbes a pure substance's ability to change into different substances
Examples of chemical properties
flammability, tarnishability, rustability, react to other substances
Physical properties of matter
characteristic of a pure substance that can be observed without changing it into another substance
Examples of physical properties
physical state(liquid,solid,gas), texture, color, flexability, luster, ability to conduct heat and electricity, magnetic attraction
What are mixtures?
2 or more substances together but not chemically combined
2 types of mixtures:
heterogeneous and homogeneous
heterogeneous mixture
a mixture in which you can see the different parts
homogeneous mixture
mixed so evenly that different parts are not visable
ways of separating mixtures
magnetism, filteration, evaporation, distillation
What is volume??
the amount of space matter occupies(L*W*H)
What is density??
the mass of a material in a given volume
What is a physical change??
a change that alters the form or appearance of matter but does not chemically change the substance
What is a chemical change??
change in matter that produces 2 or more new substances
-ex.combustion, electrolysis, oxidation, tarnishing
What does a chemical formula show??
the elements in a compound and the ratio of atoms
What is a chemical compound??
a pure substance made up of 2 or more elements chemically combined
What is the melting point??
specific temperature at which a substance changes from a solid to a liquid
What is the freezing point??
specific temperature at which a substance changes from a liquid to a solid
What is vaporization??
a substance's change from a liquid to a gas
What is evaporation??
vaporization occuring at the surface of a liquid
What is boiling??
vaporization occuring below the surface of a liquid
What is condensation??
a substance's change from a gas to a liquid
What is sublimation??
a substance's change from a solid directly to a gas
Boyle's Law
When the pressure of a gas at constant temperature is increased, the volume of the gas decreases, vise versa; varies inversely
Charles' Law
temperature of a gas is increased at constant pressure, its volume increases, vise versa; directly proportional
relationship btwn temperature and pressure
temperature of a gas at constant volume increases, the pressure of the gas increases, vise versa
manipulated variable
responding variable
Boyle's Law
pres. in.,
Charles' Law
temp. in., vol. in.
amorphous solid
particles in a solid are not arranged in a regular pattern
crystalline solid
solids made up of crystals