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139 Cards in this Set

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Nerve Tissue
Carries messages back and froth between the brain and every other part of the body. It directs and controls the body.
Connective Tissue
provides support for your body and connects all its parts.
Ex- Bone,fat, and blood.
Epithelial Tissue
Covers the surfacts of your body.
Ex- The skin and the lining of the dygestive system.
Organ
Stcuture that is composed od different kinds of tissue.
oRGAN SYSTEM
GROUP of organs that work together to perform a major function
Homeostasis
Bodys tendency to maintain an internal balance. It is the porcess by which an organisms internal enivironment is kept staple in spit of changes in the externeal enviornment.
Stress
Your bodys reaction to threatning, challenging, or disturbing evens. Stress upsets your bodys homeostasis,
Adrenaline
Released in the bloodstreem... gives you a burst of energy and causes many other changes in your body.

Speeds up your breathing and quickens your heart rate.
Involuntary muscles
The muscles that are not under your conscious control
Voluntary muscles
the muscles that are under your control
What are the three types of muscle tissue?
Skeletal muscle, smooth muscle, and cardiac muscle
Skeletal Muscles
Attatched to the bones of your skeleon.
Voluntary
Tendon
A strong connective tissue that attatches muscle to the bone
Smooth muscles
Involuntary muscles because they work automatically, Inside many internal organs of the body and control many movememnts
Cardiac Muscles
involuntary muscles found only in the heart
What are the five major functions of the skeleton
Provides shape and support, enables you to move, protects your internal organs, prodeuces blood cells, and stoes cetrain materials until your body needs them
Vertebrae
26 small bones that make up your backbone
Marrow
the spaces in bone that contain a soft connective tissue
Cartilage
connective tissue that is more flexible than bone.
Joint
A place in the body where two bones come together
immovable and movvable joints
immovable- allow little or no movement
movable- allows the body to make a qide range of movements
Ball And socket joint
allows the greatest range of motion
hinge joint
Allows forward or backward moition
pivot joint
allows one bone to roate around another
gliding joint
allows one bone to slide over another
Ligament
the bones in movable joints that are held together by a strong connective tissue
osteoporosis
a condition in which the bodys bones become weak and break easily
Force
A push or pull on an object
Work
When the force that you exert makes the object moved
Machines
devices that help you do work
Lever
rigit object that pivots, or rotates, about a fixed point
fulcrum
the fixed point around which the lever roates
Mechanical advantage
a machine is a measure of how much easier it is to do work by using a machine
first. second. and third class lever
1st= Fulcrum is located between the input force and the output force

2nd- between the fulcrum and the input force

3rd- the fulcrum and the output force
Skin
covers teh body and prevents the loss of water. Protects the body from injury and infection. The skin also helps to regulate body temperature, elimante wastees, gather information about the eniviornment, and produce vitamin D
Epidermis
the outermost layer of skin
melanin
a pigment that cells deem in the epidermis produce
dermis
lower layer of the skin
pores
an opening through which sweat reaches the surface of the skin.
follicles
structure in the dermis of the skin from which a strand of hair grows
four habits to keep skin healthy
eat properly, drink enough water, limit your exposure to the sun, keep your skin clean and dry
cancer
disease in which some body cells divide uncontrollably.
acne
a bacterial infection of the skin in which the oil glands become blocked and swollen
Nutrients
the substances in food that provide the raw materials and energy the body needs to carry out all the essential processes
Six kinds of nutrients
Carbohydres, fats, proteins, vitmains, minerals, and water.
calorie
the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of one gram of water by one celsius degree.
carboyhydrates
nutrients composed of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen. Major source of energy.
Glucouse
major source of energy for your bodys cells
fiber
complex carbohydrate found in plant foods. Keeps the digestive system functioning properly
Fats
High energy nutritents that are composed of carbon oxyten and hydrogen
unsaturated fats
fats such as olive oil and canola oil, that are usually liquid at room temperature
saturated fats
fats such as butter that are usually solid at room temperature
cholesterol
a waxy fatlike substance found only in animal products
Digestive system- main functions
* breaks down food into molecules
*molecules are absorbed into the blood throughout the body
*wastes are eliminated from the body
digestion
the process by which the body breaks down food into small nutritent molecules
Two kinds of digestion
mechanical- foods are physically broken down into smaller pieces

chemical- chemicals produced by the body break foods insto their smaller chemical building blocks
absorption
process by which nutrient molecules pass through the wall of your digestive system into our blood
saliva
the fluid released when your mouth waters. plays important role in mechanical and chemical digestion
enyzme
protein that speeds up chemical reactions in the body.
epiglottis
a flap of tissue that seals off your windpipe preventing food from entering
esophagus
a muscular tube that connects the mouth to the stomach
mucus
a thick,slippery substance produced by the body.
peristalsis
involuntary waves of muscle contractions that move food down the esophagus towards the stomach
stomach
j-shaped muscular pouch located in the abdomen
small intestine
part of the digestive system where most of the chemical digestion takes place. almost all chemical digestion and absportion of nutrients take place.
liver
located in the uppoer portion of the abdomen, plays an important role in digestion. Produces bile
Bile
substances that breaks up fat particles
gallbladder
the organ that s tores bile
pancreas
triangular organ that lies between the stomach and the first part of the small intestine.
villi
the lining of the small intestine that is covered with millions of tiny structures
large intestine
the last section of the digestive system that contains helpful baccteria that feet on the mat erial passing through
what happens in the movementt of large istestine
water is absorbed into t he bloodstream. the remaining material is readied for elimation from the b ody
rectum
the sh ort tube where the large intestine ends.
anus
the muscular opening at the end of the reectm.
carbohydrates
nutrients composed of carbon,hydrogen, and oxygen...source of material that makes parts of cells
proteins
nutrients that contain nitrogen as well as carbon,hydrogen,and oxygen.
amino acids
small units that proteins are made up of..that are linked together to form protein molecules
vitamins
helper moleculles in a variety of chemical reactions within the body
mineralls
nutrients that are not made by living things.
species
a grorup of similar organisms that can mate with eachother and produce fertile offspring.
adaptation
a trait that helps an organism survive and reproduce
evolutoin
the gradual cahnge in a species overtime
scientific theory
well tested concept that explains a wide range of observations
natural selection
process by which individuals that are better adapted to their enivornment are more likely to survive and reproduce than other members of the same species
variation
any difference between individuals of the same species
What are the two characteristics of the plant?
they have vascular tissue and use seeds to reproduce
phloem
vascular tissue through whichh food moves.
xylem
where water and nutrients travel in the vascular tissue.
Seeds
structures that contain a young plant inside a protective covering.
seeds important parts
embryo. stored food. and a seed coat
embryo
the young plant that devolops from the zygoat, or fertilized egg
cotyledons
food is stored inside one or two seed leaves.
germination
early growth stage of the embryo. begins when the seed absorbs water from the enivornment and uses its stored food to begin and grow
process of photosynthesis
leaves capture the suns energy and carry outo the food making.
stomata
the underside of the leaf thath as small openings or pores
transpiration
the process by which water evaporates from the stomata in a plants leaves
cambium
the layers of cells inside of the stem
root cap
where the tip of root is rounded..protects the root from injury from rocks and other material as the root grwos through the soil/
angiosperm
a plant that produces seeds that are enclosed in a fruit
ovary
seeds devolop in a protective structure
flower
the reproductive structure of an angiosperm.
two characteristics of angiosperms
produce flowers and fruit
petals
the colorful ructures that you see when flowers open.
sepals
leaf like structures thatp rotect the devoloping flowers.
stamens
the male reproducttive parts
pistils
the female parts that are usulaly found in the center of the flower
Angiospermm reproduction
first pollen falls on a strigma..in time the sperm cell and egg cell join together in the flowers ovule. the zygote devolops into the embryo part of the seed
fruit
a ripened ovary and other structures that enclose one or more seeds
monocots
angiosperms that only have one seed lead
dictos
produce seeds with two leaves and include plants such as roses violets and dandelions
monocots
angiosperms that only have one seed lead
dictos
produce seeds with two leaves and include plants such as roses violets and dandelions
photosynethsis
the process by which plants make food...during photosynthesis a plant uses carbon dioside gas and water to make food and oxygen
cell wall
a boundary that surrons the cell membrane and seperates the cell from the enivornment
cellulouse
a chemical that makes the walls rigit
chloroplasts
structures in which food is made
vacuole
large sacklike storage area that stores water wastes and food.
tissues
groups of similar cells that perform a specific function.
chlorophyll
a green pigment found in the chloroplasts of plant cells
what doo plants need to survive on land
they must have ways to obtain water and other materials from their surroundings, retains awter, transport materials throughout the plant, support their bodies, and reproduce successfully.
cuticle
waxy waterproof layer covering there leaves..helps keep water inside a plant cell rather than let it evaporate into the air
vascular tissue
an internal syystem of tubelike structures through which food and water move inside the plant
fertilization
occurs when a sperm cell unites with an egg cel
zygote
the fertilized egg
sporophyte
a stage when the plant produces spores
gametophyte+ gametes
produces gametes
gametes- sperm and egg cells
how do u determine the evolutionary relationships among organisms
compare body structures, devolopement before birth, and dna sequences
homologous structures
similar structures that related species have inherited from a common ancestor
branching tree
diagram that shows how scientists think different groups of organisms are related.
fossil
preserved remains or traces of an organism that lived in the past
when do fossils form
when the organisms that die become buried in sediments
fossil record
the millions of fossils that scientesits ahve collected
extinct
if no members of that species are still alive..the fossil recprd also provides clues about how and when new groups of organisms evolved
gradualism
the theory that evoloution ocurs slowly but steeadily
punctuated equilibria
theory that species evolve during short periods of rapid change
fossil record
the millions of fossils that scientesits ahve collected
extinct
if no members of that species are still alive..the fossil recprd also provides clues about how and when new groups of organisms evolved
gradualism
the theory that evoloution ocurs slowly but steeadily
punctuated equilibria
theory that species evolve during short periods of rapid change