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109 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
most plants get water/minerals through their
roots
what 3 key events are involved in transporting water
1. entrance through roots
2. transport through xlem
3. exits through leaves
Water enters through what part of the root
root hairs
water and dissolved mineral are absorbed through the _________ near the root tips.
epidermis
a one-celled-thick covering tissue foundo nyoung or non-woody plant parts.
epidermis
the cells of the root epidermis hav tiny extensions called ______________
root hairs
once absorbed, water moves through or between cells in the root until it reaches the __________ of the root.
center
the vascular tissues, _______________ are located near the center.
xylem and phloem
one way that water enters the xylem is through ___________
osmosis
The __________ diameter and _________shape of xylem cells help transport water.
narrow, hollow
____________ pulls water up the plant.
transpiration
special epidermal cells on the underside of many leaves surround tiny openings in the leaves of called _________.
stomata
The special epidermal cells called ________ on the uncerside of many leaves surround tiny openings in the leaves called ____________.
guard cells
stomata
Guard cells can ____ or ____ the stomata to regulate the passage of water _____ and other _____ in and out of leaves through the stomata.
close
open
vapor
gasses
The act of water exiting through the stomata of plants is called _______
transpiration
Transpiration is necessary so the _____ will rise to the _____ through the _____ from the _____.
water
leaves
xylem
roots
On hot or dry days plants can ______ transpiration.
stop
converts the sugar produced from photosynthesis into usable energy for the plant.
aerobic cellular respiration
aerobic respiration uses _____ and produces ______ ______.
oxygen
carbon dioxide
in the green parts of the plants, gasses are exchanged through the ________.
stomata
in the woody areas of the plant, oxygen passes through tiny openings in the bard called __________.
lenticels
green plant organs contain the green pigment ___________.
chlorophyll
organs where photosynthesis occurs
green plant organs
most plants carry on photosynthesis in their ________.
leaves
in a typical leaf, the tissue under the upper epidermis is a layer of closely packed, tall, thin cells called _________.
palisade mesophyll
the cells of the palisade mesophyll have many __________.
chloroplasts
the tissue below the palisade mesophyll is the ________ ________.
spongy mesophyll
because of the ___________, between spongy mesophyll cells, there are fewer ________ on the underside of leaves than on top.
spaces
chloroplasts
The spaces of the spongy mesophyll are important for ____________.
photosynthesis
photosynthesis requires _________ and ______ _________.
oxygen
carbon dioxide
_____________ carries water from the roots and releases it into the spaces of the ___________ _________.
xylem
spongy mesophyll
The __________ allow carbon dioxide from the atmosphere to pass into the leaf.
stomatic
___________ is useful because it contains energy captured from the sun.
sugar
cells that carry on photosynthesis make _______ cells than they need for energy.
more
some of the extra sugar molecules are used to make __________, which is used to make _________ __________.
cellulose
cell walls
some plants store the extra sugar as _____.
starch
give examples of plants that have a large amount of starch.
potatoes
wheat
bananas
other plants store energy by converting sugar to ________.
lipids
give examples of plants that covert sugar to lipids.
peanut oil
corn oil
olive oil
a plant's growth is affected by its ___________.
surroundings
growth in a plant can result in an increase in ________, _________ or both.
length
thickness
plants have special areas where growth occurs called _____________.
meristems
In meristems, an exceptionally large portion of cells undergo cell ________ and _________ in size.
division
increase
meristems are usually located at the tip of ______ and ______ and between a plant's ___________ and ____________.
stems
roots
xylem
phloem
meristems at the tips of stems and roots are called _________ ___________.
apical meristems
meristems found places besides the tips of stems and roots are called _____ _____.
lateral meristems
one way a plant's growth is controlled is with chemicals called ____________.
hormones
hormones can ______ or _____ plant growth.
stimulate
stop
the growth responses of plants to their environment are called _________.
tropism
a plant growing toward a factor in its environment is said to have a _________ ________.
positive tropism
a plant growing away from the factor in its environment is said to have a _______ __________.
negative tropism
a plant's growth in response to light is called____________.
phototropism
if a plant turns toward light it domonstrates a __________ _____________.
positive phototropism
a plant's growth response to gravity is called ________.
geotropism
Plant roots show _________ _________ since they grow toward the pull of gravity.
positive geotropism
a plant stem shows _________ _________ since it grows away from the pull of gravity.
negative geotropism
a plant's response to the length of time it is exposed to light is called _______.
photoperiodism
some plants that bloom when the days are short and nights are long are called ______ ____ _______.
short day plants
give examples of short day plants
apples
violets
soybeans
some plants that bloom during long days and short nights are called ______ ______ _______.
long day plants
give examples of long day plants
lettuce
clover
grains
plants that bloom whenever conditions like moisture and temperature are acceptable regardless of the amount of light or darkness are called _______ ______ ______.
day neutral plants
give examples of day neutral plants
hybrid roses
dandelions
tomatoes
cotton
photoperiodism also determines whether or not a plant will produce _________.
flowers
it the photoperiodism is off by as little as _________, some plants will not flower.
10 minutes
Sexual Reproduction - each offspring receives _______ from both its parents.
genes
______________ occur in pairs, so they are usually two copies of each gene.
chrommosomes
organisms are called ___________ if they have two of every kind of chromosome.
diploid
Chromosomes that are "given" to offspring are found in special sex cells called _________.
gametes
______________ are designed to transfer or receive the chromosomes.
gametes
Gametes only have ___, NOT ___, of each kind of chromosome normally found in the organism.
one
two
The condition of only having one set of chromosomes is called ____________.
haploid
in flowering plants gamets are produced in __________.
flowers
in flowering plants __________ are produced in flowers.
gametes
non-flowering plants may produce gametets in __________.
cones or other special features
flowers are the ____________ organs of a plant.
reproductive
what 3 attributes of flowers help carry out the reproductive process.
color
shape
smell
flowers consist of 4 different types of appendages that are attached to a base.
What are they?
sepals
petals
stamens
carpels
from the outer to inner name the four parts of a flower in order
sepal
petals
stamens
carpels
___________ - leaflike structures that protect the flower while it is developing.
sepals
___________- often the largest and mot colorful parts of flowers.
petals
____________- male reproductive part of flower.
stamen
name the two parts of the stamen
a long thing filament
thicker part at the top called an anther
the anther is filled with 1000's of _____ ______ which contain the _________ _______ of a flower.
pollen grains
male gametes
when the pollen grains are mature they pass out through the _______.
anther
________- female reproductive part of the flower.
carpel
name the 3 main sections of the carpel
ovary
style
stigma
_____- swollen area at the bottom of the carpel.
ovary
_________ - slender stalk above the ovary
style
_________- on top of the syle
stigma
the stigma, which is often sticky, is the part which the __________ attaches.
pollen
__________- process of transferring pollen from an anther to a stigma.
pollination
when the pollen reaches the stigma, the pollen grows a _________.
pollentube
When the pollen reaches the _______, the pollen grows a _________ through the _______, into the _________, and on into the _________ of the flower.
stigma
pollen tube
stigma
style
ovary
inside the pollen tube are the ________ _______ of the plant.
male gametes
insied the ovary are the _________ ________, which contian the eggs.
female gametes
When the pollen tube reaches the ________, _____ gametes enter the ovule and merge with the ____.
ovule
male
egg
the combination of the male gamets with the egg is called __________.
fertilization
fertilization results in a ________ that grows into a tiny _________ plant.
zygote
embryo
The ovule developes into a seed which contains the ______, ____ _____ and _______ ________.
embryo
stored food
protective coat
as the ovule matures into a seed, the _____ and _______ of most flowers shrivel and fall.
petals
stamens
as the ovary grows, it developes into a _________.
fruit
the ovaries of some plants remain small, but other increase up to _________ times before they are ripe.
100,000
plant reproduction that does not involve gametes is _________ __________.
asexual reproduction
an organism produced by asexual reproduction has genes __________ to its parents.
identical
the spider plant, a common house plant, forms _________, which are thin stems, with small plantlets on the ends.
runners
_________ are complete plants that can grow and mature if they are placed in soil.
plantlets
give two examples of plants with runners and plantlets.
spider plant
strawberry plant
________________ - cutting a part of a plant, like leaves, stems or roots and placing it into water or moist soil.
leafcutting