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### 110 Cards in this Set

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 When doing work, you exert, over, Force, Distance When doing work, you exert, over, Force, Distance In order to do work the object must move For work to be done, force exerted must be in the as the objects . Same direction, motion Work = Force X Distance The SI unit of work is the . Joule A is also called a Joule. newton-meter One Joule is the amount of work you do when exert a force of to move an objects a distance of 1 Newton 1 meter How does a machine make work easier? Changing force, distance, and direction If only the direction of force changes the input force and output force are? Same as the output The efficiency of a machine compares force to force Output. input Efficiency is expressed as a % (percent) List the six simple machines and give an example of each Inclined plane- ramp Wedge- axe Screw- Screw Lever- Spoon Wheel and Axle- screw driver Pulley- flag pole The fixed point on a lever is called a fulcrum Define lever A ridged bar that is free to pivot or rotate a fixed point Define Pulley A grooved wheel, with a rope wrapped around it What is the difference between movable and fixed pulleys Fixed is on the top, moveable is on the bottom What is a compound machine? Give an example of one. A machine that utilizes two or more simple machines Ex. Pencil Sharpener Most machines in out body are levers What is energy The ability to do work or cause change What is work The product of force and distance when a force is used to move an object What is the unit for work? joules List 3 example of K.E Rolling a bowling ball, hitting a gulf ball, kicking a soccer ball What does KE depend on? Mass to increase Describe two ways to increase KC Use a greater force and increase the distance What is the equation for KE? Mass X Velocity divided by 2 What is potential energy (PE)? Energy that is stored and held in readiness List and give examples of 6 types of energy Mechanical, thermal, chemical, electrical, electromagnetic, nuclear, School bus, Atoms, chocolate, metal , door know, light you see, Nuclei fuse What is an energy conversion A change from one form of energy to another State the law of conservation of energy That when 1 form of energy is converted to another no energy is destroyed What is power The rate at which work is done What is the equation for power P= Force X Distance over Time What is the unit for power Watts Define: TEMPERATURE A measure of the average kentic energy of the individual particles in an object How do you change temperatures on the Kelvin scale to Celsius degrees Subtract 273 Define: THERMAL ENERGY The total of all particles in a substance The____ particles a substance has at a given temperature, the more___ energy it has More, Thermal Define Heat The movement or thermal energy from a substance at a high temp to another low temp Heat is transferred by ___, ____, and___. CONDUCTION CONVECTION RADIATION DESCRIBE CONDUCTIOIN CONVECTION RADATION Conduction is heat transferred from one particle of matter to another without movement of matter it self. Convection the movement that transfers heat within water. Radiation is the transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves Heat flows from the___object to the _one Warmer to the cooler A material that does not conduct heat well is called a Insulator List the 3 states of matter on Earth Solid Liquid Gas What happens to the temperature during a phase change? Remains the same What happens to heat (thermal energy) during a phase change? Stays the same As the thermal energy of a substance___, its particles spread out and the substance expands Increases What is a wage? Disturbance that transfers energy from one place to another Waves cause the particles of a medium to do what? Vibrate How are waves classified By how they move, transverse, longitudinal, surface What is the highest and lowest part of a wave called Crest & Trough How do the particles of transverse waves move? Of longitudinal waves? Transverse - 1 direction across Longitudinal- Parallel the wave moves way from their rest position What is amplitude The max distance the particles of the medium carrying How can you measure the wavelength of a wave By measuring crest to crest What is the unit for frequency Hertz Name 3 factors that affect the speed of a wave in the medium Wavelength, frequency, speed When does a wave experience reflection? Give an example. When an object or wave hits a surface through which it cant pass it bounces back when water hits the side of the pool. In both diffraction and refraction waves bend, explain how they are different. Refraction is the bending due to the change in speed Diffraction is bending because of its edge of barrier What is wave interference? Explain how the amplitude changes with destructive and constructive interference. When two or more waves meet at the same place same time, when combined produces a smaller amplitude What is a standing wave and when does it occur? Appears to stand in one place even as they pass through each other it is really two waves interfering Sound is a ___ that travels through a __ as a ____ wave. Disturbance , medium , longitudinal What tree mediums do sounds travel through Elasticity, Density, Temp of medium Sound can only travel if Sound will not travel in Outer space Three properties that effect the speed of sound are ___, ___, and ____. Elasticity, Density, and Temperature Define elasticity. The more elastic a medium a sound will travel _____. The ability to bounce back:faster The ___ of a sound depends upon how much energy the wave carries a second given area Intensity Loudness or sound level is measure in __. Each 10-dB increase in sound level represents a ___ increase in intensity. Decibels Tenfold Define Ultrasound and infrasound Ultra- Frequency above normal human range Define pitch. Pitch depends upon _____. Frequency of a sound wave how high or low a sound seems to a person Define Doppler effect Changes in frequency of a sound as the source moves in relation to the listener As a sound approaches the listener, the pitch is ____ due to a ____ frequency Increase Higher Music is .... a set of tones combined in ways that are Pleasant to your ear Interference occurs when __ or ___ sound waves____. Two more interact How are acoustics used to design concert halls They consider the shape of the room Sound enters through the ___ ___ and then vibrates the ___ a tightly stretched membrane Ear canal Ear drum From here sound enters the middle ear through three small bones Hammer anvil and syrup Liquid cavity of the inner ear is called the.... cochlea Describe how the cochlea transmits sound to the brain Hair attached to the nerves How is an EM wave different from a mechanical wave It can transfer with out a medium It can transfer with out a medium What is polarized light A light that passes through a filter to produce waves moving in one direction What is a photon A packet of light every shined on How are all electromagnetic waves the same? How are they different? Travel at the same speed but have different wavelengths List the 6 types of EM waves in order of increasing frequency Give and example of each as well? Radio, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, x-ray, Gamma How does an incandescent light work? Electricity runs through a filament and heats up What does AM stand for Amplitude Modulation What does FM stand for Frequency Modulation What types of waves do cell phones use? Microwave What is the global positioning system for? To tell where you are and give direction When light strikes an object the light can be ___,____, or ____. Reflected absorbed transmitted Define Opaque A material that reflects absorbs all of the light that strikes it Compare transparent and translucent material Transparent- transmits translucent scatters the surface When does regular reflection occurs? When it hits a smooth surface When does diffuse reflection occurs? When it hits a rough surface A concave mirror curves ____. inward A convex Mirror curves____. outward Since the rays do not actually meet, images formed by convex mirrors are always ... Virtual When light rays enter a new medium at an angle that changes in speed causes them to ___, or change ____. Bend Direction Define Lens ... A curved piece of glass or other transparent material used to refract light A ____ lens is thinner in the center than at edges. Concave What happens to parallel light that's enters a concave lens? They are bent away center A ___ lens is thicker in the center than at the edges. Convex What happens to parallel light that enters a convex lens? Bent towards the lens The primary colors of light are _ _ Red, Green, Blue Define Pigments substances that are used to color other materials Describe the cornea Protects the eye and also acts as a lens The ___ is a ring of muscle that contracts and expands to change the amount of light that enters the eye. The ___ gives the eye its color. Iris changes size, not pupil Iris The ___ is the part of the eyes that looks black. It is actually a hole. Pupil Define: Retina The layer of cells lining the inside of the eyeball Define: Retina The layer of cells lining the inside of the eyeball The signals generated by the rods and cones travel to your brain along a short, thick nerve called the .... Optic nerve In some people the eyeball is slightly too ___ or too ____ Long , Short