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110 Cards in this Set

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When doing work, you exert, over,
Force, Distance
When doing work, you exert, over,
Force, Distance
In order to do work the object must
move
For work to be done, force exerted must be in the as the objects .
Same direction, motion
Work =
Force X Distance
The SI unit of work is the .
Joule
A is also called a Joule.
newton-meter
One Joule is the amount of work you do when exert a force of to move an objects a distance of 1 Newton
1 meter
How does a machine make work easier?
Changing force, distance, and direction
If only the direction of force changes the input force and output force are?
Same as the output
The efficiency of a machine compares force to force Output.
input
Efficiency is expressed as a
% (percent)
List the six simple machines and give an example of each
Inclined plane- ramp
Wedge- axe
Screw- Screw
Lever- Spoon
Wheel and Axle- screw driver
Pulley- flag pole
The fixed point on a lever is called a
fulcrum
Define lever
A ridged bar that is free to pivot or rotate a fixed point
Define Pulley
A grooved wheel, with a rope wrapped around it
What is the difference between movable and fixed pulleys
Fixed is on the top, moveable is on the bottom
What is a compound machine? Give an example of one.
A machine that utilizes two or more simple machines Ex. Pencil Sharpener
Most machines in out body are
levers
What is energy
The ability to do work or cause change
What is work
The product of force and distance when a force is used to move an object
What is the unit for work?
joules
List 3 example of K.E
Rolling a bowling ball, hitting a gulf ball, kicking a soccer ball
What does KE depend on?
Mass to increase
Describe two ways to increase KC
Use a greater force and increase the distance
What is the equation for KE?
Mass X Velocity divided by 2
What is potential energy (PE)?
Energy that is stored and held in readiness
List and give examples of 6 types of energy
Mechanical, thermal, chemical, electrical, electromagnetic, nuclear, School bus, Atoms, chocolate, metal , door know, light you see, Nuclei fuse
What is an energy conversion
A change from one form of energy to another
State the law of conservation of energy
That when 1 form of energy is converted to another no energy is destroyed
What is power
The rate at which work is done
What is the equation for power
P= Force X Distance over Time
What is the unit for power
Watts
Define: TEMPERATURE
A measure of the average kentic energy of the individual particles in an object
How do you change temperatures on the Kelvin scale to Celsius degrees
Subtract 273
Define: THERMAL ENERGY
The total of all particles in a substance
The____ particles a substance has at a given temperature, the more___ energy it has
More, Thermal
Define Heat
The movement or thermal energy from a substance at a high temp to another low temp
Heat is transferred by ___, ____, and___.
CONDUCTION CONVECTION RADIATION
DESCRIBE CONDUCTIOIN CONVECTION RADATION
Conduction is heat transferred from one particle of matter to another without movement of matter it self. Convection the movement that transfers heat within water. Radiation is the transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves
Heat flows from the___object to the _one
Warmer to the cooler
A material that does not conduct heat well is called a
Insulator
List the 3 states of matter on Earth
Solid Liquid Gas
What happens to the temperature during a phase change?
Remains the same
What happens to heat (thermal energy) during a phase change?
Stays the same
As the thermal energy of a substance___, its particles spread out and the substance expands
Increases
What is a wage?
Disturbance that transfers energy from one place to another
Waves cause the particles of a medium to do what?
Vibrate
How are waves classified
By how they move, transverse, longitudinal, surface
What is the highest and lowest part of a wave called
Crest & Trough
How do the particles of transverse waves move? Of longitudinal waves?
Transverse - 1 direction across Longitudinal- Parallel the wave moves way from their rest position
What is amplitude
The max distance the particles of the medium carrying
How can you measure the wavelength of a wave
By measuring crest to crest
What is the unit for frequency
Hertz
Name 3 factors that affect the speed of a wave in the medium
Wavelength, frequency, speed
When does a wave experience reflection? Give an example.
When an object or wave hits a surface through which it cant pass it bounces back when water hits the side of the pool.
In both diffraction and refraction waves bend, explain how they are different.
Refraction is the bending due to the change in speed
Diffraction is bending because of its edge of barrier
What is wave interference? Explain how the amplitude changes with destructive and constructive interference.
When two or more waves meet at the same place same time, when combined produces a smaller amplitude
What is a standing wave and when does it occur?
Appears to stand in one place even as they pass through each other it is really two waves interfering
Sound is a ___ that travels through a __ as a ____ wave.
Disturbance , medium , longitudinal
What tree mediums do sounds travel through
Elasticity, Density, Temp of medium
Sound can only travel if…
Sound will not travel in Outer space
Three properties that effect the speed of sound are ___, ___, and ____.
Elasticity, Density, and Temperature
Define elasticity. The more elastic a medium a sound will travel _____.
The ability to bounce back:faster
The ___ of a sound depends upon how much energy the wave carries a second given area
Intensity
Loudness or sound level is measure in __. Each 10-dB increase in sound level represents a ___ increase in intensity.
Decibels
Tenfold
Define Ultrasound and infrasound
Ultra- Frequency above normal human range
Define pitch. Pitch depends upon _____.
Frequency of a sound wave how high or low a sound seems to a person
Define Doppler effect
Changes in frequency of a sound as the source moves in relation to the listener
As a sound approaches the listener, the pitch is ____ due to a ____
frequency Increase
Higher
Music is ....
a set of tones combined in ways that are Pleasant to your ear
Interference occurs when __ or ___ sound waves____.
Two more interact
How are acoustics used to design concert halls
They consider the shape of the room
Sound enters through the ___ ___ and then vibrates the ___ a tightly stretched membrane
Ear canal
Ear drum
From here sound enters the middle ear through three small bones
Hammer anvil and syrup
Liquid cavity of the inner ear is called the....
cochlea
Describe how the cochlea transmits sound to the brain
Hair attached to the nerves
How is an EM wave different from a mechanical wave It can transfer with out a medium
It can transfer with out a medium
What is polarized light
A light that passes through a filter to produce waves moving in one direction
What is a photon
A packet of light every shined on
How are all electromagnetic waves the same? How are they different?
Travel at the same speed but have different wavelengths
List the 6 types of EM waves in order of increasing frequency Give and example of each as well?
Radio, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, x-ray, Gamma
How does an incandescent light work?
Electricity runs through a filament and heats up
What does AM stand for
Amplitude Modulation
What does FM stand for
Frequency Modulation
What types of waves do cell phones use?
Microwave
What is the global positioning system for?
To tell where you are and give direction
When light strikes an object the light can be ___,____, or ____.
Reflected absorbed transmitted
Define Opaque
A material that reflects absorbs all of the light that strikes it
Compare transparent and translucent material
Transparent- transmits translucent scatters the surface
When does regular reflection occurs?
When it hits a smooth surface
When does diffuse reflection occurs?
When it hits a rough surface
A concave mirror curves ____.
inward
A convex Mirror curves____.
outward
Since the rays do not actually meet, images formed by convex mirrors are always ...
Virtual
When light rays enter a new medium at an angle that changes in speed causes them to ___, or change ____.
Bend
Direction
Define Lens ...
A curved piece of glass or other transparent material used to refract light
A ____ lens is thinner in the center than at edges.
Concave
What happens to parallel light that's enters a concave lens?
They are bent away center
A ___ lens is thicker in the center than at the edges.
Convex
What happens to parallel light that enters a convex lens?
Bent towards the lens
The primary colors of light are _ _
Red, Green, Blue
Define Pigments
substances that are used to color other materials
Describe the cornea
Protects the eye and also acts as a lens
The ___ is a ring of muscle that contracts and expands to change the amount of light that enters the eye. The ___ gives the eye its color.
Iris changes size, not pupil Iris
The ___ is the part of the eyes that looks black. It is actually a hole.
Pupil
Define: Retina
The layer of cells lining the inside of the eyeball
Define: Retina
The layer of cells lining the inside of the eyeball
The signals generated by the rods and cones travel to your brain along a short, thick nerve called the ....
Optic nerve
In some people the eyeball is slightly too ___ or too ____
Long , Short