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78 Cards in this Set

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• Back
 Theory The most logical explanation for events that occur in nature Law Summarizes observed experimential facts that has been tested many times and is accepted as true Geology The study of the Earths origin Meteorology The study of the Earths atmosphere Oceanology The study of the Earths oceans Astronomy The study of the characteristics of the planets and stars Variable One factor that is being tested Control An experiment Data Observations and measurements Fair test An experiment only testing one variable Metric System The scientific system of measurement Meter The basic unit of length Mass A measure of the amount of matter in an object Volume The amount of space an object takes up Liter The basic unit of volume Cubic centimeter The metric unit used to measure the volume of solids Gram Used to measure the mass of small objects Weight A measure of the attraction between 2 objects Newton The basic unit of length Newton The basic unit of weight Density The relationship between mass and volume Celsius What temerature is measured on Dimensional Analysis Converting one unit to another Conversion Factor A fraction that always equals to 1 Refracting telescope A series of lenses which is used to focus light Reflecting telescope A series of lenses used to collect and focus light from distant objects Weight A measure of the attraction between 2 objects Electromagnetic spectrum Arrangement of electromagnetic waves which consist of visible light, ultraviolet light, infrared light, x rays, and radio waves Radio telescope A telescope that gathers radio waves from distant objects in order to produce images of those objects Infrared telescope A telescope that gathers infrared light from distant objects in order to produce images of those objects Ultraviolet telescope A telescope that gathers ultraviolet light from distant objects in order to produce images of those objects X ray telescope A telescope that gathers x rays from distant object in order to produce images of those objects Inner Core The solid innermost center of the earth Outer core The layer of the earth surrounding the inner core Mantle The layer of the earth that extends from the bottom of the crust to the outer core Moho The boundary between the earth's outermost layer and the mantle Plasticity The ability of a solid to flow or change shape Crust The thin outermost layer of the earth Lithosphere The topmost solid part of the earth Asthenosphere The layer of the earth directly beneath the lithosphere IMIC Inner most inner core Stress The forces that push and pull on the earths crust, causing deformation Deformation Any change in the origonal shape or volume of rocks Deformation Any change in the origonal shape or volume of rocks Compression A type of stress that squeezes rocks together Tension The type of stress that pulls rocks apart Shearing The type of stress that pushes rocks of the crust in 2 opposite horizontal directions Fracture A break or crack in a rock Fault A break or crack along which rocks move Hanging wall The block of rock above a fault Foot wall The block of rock below a fault Normal fault A fault in which the hanging wall moves fown relative to the foot wall Reverse fault A fault in which the hanging wall moves up relative to the foot wall Thrust fault A reverse fault in which the hanging wall slides over the foot wall Lateral/strike slip fault A fault along which the blocks move horizontally past eachother Fault block mountain A mountain formed by blocks of rock uplifted along normal faults Rift valley A valley formed when the block of land between 2 normal faults slides downward Fold A bend in a rock Anticline An upward fold in a rock Syncline A downward fold in a rock Plateau A large area of flat land high above sea level Dome A raised area formed by magma pushing upward on the rock layers above it Isostasy The balancing of the upward force of the mantle and the downward force of the crust Earthquake The shaking and trembling that results from the suden movement of part of the Earths crust Aftershock A shock which occurs after an earthquake Seismogram A record of seismic waves Seismograph Recording of seismic waves Seismologist A person who records seismic waves Seismology The study of seismic waves Richter scale A scale used to measure the strength of earthquakes Focus The underground point of origin of an earthquake P waves Primary waves; can travel through solids, liquids, and gases. They are the fastest type of seismic waves. S waves Secondary waves; can only travel through solids. Slower than P waves but faster than L waves. L waves Surface waves; slowest moving waves. R waves Rayleigh waves Body waves P and S waves Epicenter The point on the earths surface directly above the focus of an earthquake USGS United states geological survey