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78 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Theory
The most logical explanation for events that occur in nature
Law
Summarizes observed experimential facts that has been tested many times and is accepted as true
Geology
The study of the Earths origin
Meteorology
The study of the Earths atmosphere
Oceanology
The study of the Earths oceans
Astronomy
The study of the characteristics of the planets and stars
Variable
One factor that is being tested
Control
An experiment
Data
Observations and measurements
Fair test
An experiment only testing one variable
Metric System
The scientific system of measurement
Meter
The basic unit of length
Mass
A measure of the amount of matter in an object
Volume
The amount of space an object takes up
Liter
The basic unit of volume
Cubic centimeter
The metric unit used to measure the volume of solids
Gram
Used to measure the mass of small objects
Weight
A measure of the attraction between 2 objects
Newton
The basic unit of length
Newton
The basic unit of weight
Density
The relationship between mass and volume
Celsius
What temerature is measured on
Dimensional Analysis
Converting one unit to another
Conversion Factor
A fraction that always equals to 1
Refracting telescope
A series of lenses which is used to focus light
Reflecting telescope
A series of lenses used to collect and focus light from distant objects
Weight
A measure of the attraction between 2 objects
Electromagnetic spectrum
Arrangement of electromagnetic waves which consist of visible light, ultraviolet light, infrared light, x rays, and radio waves
Radio telescope
A telescope that gathers radio waves from distant objects in order to produce images of those objects
Infrared telescope
A telescope that gathers infrared light from distant objects in order to produce images of those objects
Ultraviolet telescope
A telescope that gathers ultraviolet light from distant objects in order to produce images of those objects
X ray telescope
A telescope that gathers x rays from distant object in order to produce images of those objects
Inner Core
The solid innermost center of the earth
Outer core
The layer of the earth surrounding the inner core
Mantle
The layer of the earth that extends from the bottom of the crust to the outer core
Moho
The boundary between the earth's outermost layer and the mantle
Plasticity
The ability of a solid to flow or change shape
Crust
The thin outermost layer of the earth
Lithosphere
The topmost solid part of the earth
Asthenosphere
The layer of the earth directly beneath the lithosphere
IMIC
Inner most inner core
Stress
The forces that push and pull on the earths crust, causing deformation
Deformation
Any change in the origonal shape or volume of rocks
Deformation
Any change in the origonal shape or volume of rocks
Compression
A type of stress that squeezes rocks together
Tension
The type of stress that pulls rocks apart
Shearing
The type of stress that pushes rocks of the crust in 2 opposite horizontal directions
Fracture
A break or crack in a rock
Fault
A break or crack along which rocks move
Hanging wall
The block of rock above a fault
Foot wall
The block of rock below a fault
Normal fault
A fault in which the hanging wall moves fown relative to the foot wall
Reverse fault
A fault in which the hanging wall moves up relative to the foot wall
Thrust fault
A reverse fault in which the hanging wall slides over the foot wall
Lateral/strike slip fault
A fault along which the blocks move horizontally past eachother
Fault block mountain
A mountain formed by blocks of rock uplifted along normal faults
Rift valley
A valley formed when the block of land between 2 normal faults slides downward
Fold
A bend in a rock
Anticline
An upward fold in a rock
Syncline
A downward fold in a rock
Plateau
A large area of flat land high above sea level
Dome
A raised area formed by magma pushing upward on the rock layers above it
Isostasy
The balancing of the upward force of the mantle and the downward force of the crust
Earthquake
The shaking and trembling that results from the suden movement of part of the Earths crust
Aftershock
A shock which occurs after an earthquake
Seismogram
A record of seismic waves
Seismograph
Recording of seismic waves
Seismologist
A person who records seismic waves
Seismology
The study of seismic waves
Richter scale
A scale used to measure the strength of earthquakes
Focus
The underground point of origin of an earthquake
P waves
Primary waves; can travel through solids, liquids, and gases. They are the fastest type of seismic waves.
S waves
Secondary waves; can only travel through solids. Slower than P waves but faster than L waves.
L waves
Surface waves; slowest moving waves.
R waves
Rayleigh waves
Body waves
P and S waves
Epicenter
The point on the earths surface directly above the focus of an earthquake
USGS
United states geological survey