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14 Cards in this Set

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diffusion
the movement of particles from regions of higher density to regions of lower density
osmosis
the diffusion of water through a semipermeable membrane
passive transport
the movement of substances across a cell membrane that requires the cell to use energy
active transport
the movement of substances across the cell membrane that requires the cell to use energy.
endocytosis
the process by which a cell membrane surrounds a particle and encloses the particle in a vesicle to bring the particle into the cell.
exocytosis
the process in which a cell releases a particle by enclosing the particle in a vesicle that then moves to the cell surface and fuses with the cell membrane.
photosynthesis
the process by which plants, algae, and some bacteria use sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water to make food.
cellular respiration
the process by which cells use oxygen to produce energy from food.
fermentation
the breakdown of food without the use of oxygen.
cell cycle
the life cycle of a cell
chromosome
in a eukaryotic cell, one of the structures in the nucleus that are made up of DNA and protein; in a prokaryotic cell, the main ring of DNA.
homologous chromosomes
chromosomes that have the same sequence of genes and the same structure.
mitosis
in eukaryotic cells, a process of cell division that forms two new nuclei, each of which has the same number of chromosomes
cytokinesis
the division and cytoplasm of a cell