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73 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
cillia and flagella
propel cells through the environment, more materials over the cell surface
wax
structural lipid
cell wall
protects cells
major type of lipids in cm
phospholipid
tissues
group of cells that carry out specific information
enzymes
organic molecules that act like catalysts
nuclear matrix
protein skeleton
polymers
complex molecules
microfilaments and microtubules
contribute to the support, movement, and division of cells
peptide
two amino acids forming a covelant bond
nucleolous
where ribosomes are synthesized
carbon bonding
carbon bonds with itself
spindfibers
bundle of microtubules
polysaccharide
triple sugar
Golgi apparatus
processes and packages substances produced by the cell
anton van leeuwenhoek
1673- first person to observe living cells
organ system
set of organs that work together to preform a task
hydrolysis
breakdown of some complex molecules such as polymers
nuclear pore
transfers RNA
alcohol
organic compound with hydroxyl group alternate to one of carbon atoms
nucleus
stores hereditary information in DNA, synthesises RNA
matthias schleiden
1838 - all plants are composed of cells
ER
rought ER; prepares proteins for export
smooth ER; synthesizes steroids, regulates calcium level, breaks down toxic substances
isomers
compounds like sugar with a single chemical formula but different forms. (glucose, fructose, and galactose)
nuclear envelope
double membrane surrounding the nucleus
nucleus
contains genetic information
lysosome
digest mole. old organelles, and foreign substances
cells are limited by size because
of ratio between the outer area and volume
organs
group of tissues
cell theory
1. all living things are composed of one or more cells
2. cells are the basic unit of structure and function in organisms
3. cells come only from the production of existing cells
ribonucleic acid
stores and transfers information that is assential for the manufactoring of proteins
fatty acids
unbranched carbon chains that make up most lipids
phospholipids
two fatty acids joined by a molecules of glycerol
monomers
simple molecule
eukaryotes
organisms whose cells are surrounded by a membrane bound
hydrophilliac
water loving
substrate
reactant being catalyzed
robert hooke
1665 - discoverd cells (of dead plants)
Rudolph virchow
1855 - all animals are composed of cells
hydrophobic
water fearing
hydrogen bond
attraction of two water molecules together
lipids
nonpolar organic molecules that do not dissolve in water
fluid mossaic model
a model scientists use to show the CM
macromolecules
large polymers
carbohydrates
organic compound composed of carbon hydrogen and oxygen
functional groups
cluster of atoms, influence property of molecules
monosaccharide
simple sugar
polypeptide
amino acids bond to eachother forming a long chain
amino acids
monomer building blocks of proteins, share a basic structure
Polar/nonpolar
uneven/even patterns of charge
condensation reaction
chemical reaction that makes monomers link to form polymers
adhesion
attraction between unlike substances
nucleic acids
large and complex organic molecules that store important info. of the cell
proteins
organic compounds composed of oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon
Disaccharide
double sugar
triglyceride
composed of 3 molecules of fatty acids joined in one molecule of the alcohol glycerol
internal structures
organelles
ATP
compounds containing large amount of energy
nucleotides
thousand of linked monomers
cohesion
particles of the same kind
capillarity
property of water
steroids
composed of 4 fused carbon ringswith various functional groups attached to them
size of cells (number
5-10
dipeptide
two amono acids that bond
selectively permiable
the tendency of the CM to select which substances can enter the cell
integral protiens
proteins that are ambedded in the bilayer
variety of shape varies by
function
prokaryotes
cells who lack a membrane bound
ribosomes
organizes the synthesis of proteins
cytosol
organelles are bathed in a gelatin - like aquous fluid
cytroplasm
contains organells in the cell
mitochondrion
transfers energy from organic compounds to ATP
cell membrane
protects the cell