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57 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
of definite shape and volume, not liquid or gaseous
the state of mater in which a substance exhibis a characteristic readiness to flow, little or no tendency to disperse and realativitly hig incompressibilitly
the state of matter distinguished from the solid or liquid states by low denisty and viscosity
physical change
any pross invloving a substance's change from one state to another without alteration of the chimcal composition
chemical change
any change from one state which is accompanied by alteration of the chemical composistion.
a solid formed by a repeatng, three-dimensional pattern of itons, ion or molecules and having fixed distances fbetween parts
any of a large class of materials with highly variable mechanical and optical properties, generally hear, britter and transparent, considered a supercooled liquid
a mixture or solid solution of two or more metals
a string of two more monomers
cement (limestone powder, silicon dioxide, alumina) and aggregate (stones, sand) and water (for hydration reaction)
what is pressure treater lumber
lumber that has been driven with chemicals as to keep wood for a longer period of time.
what are some advantages of pressure treated lumber
a. expands lifespan by 10-20 years
b. has gotten more "human friendly"
c. easy and treatable
d. usesless as food source for fungi, etc.
e. more reliable
what are some disadvantages of pressure treated lumber?
a. originally contained arsnic
b. doesn't last as long as composite wood
c. toxic.
What is matter made of?
what is an atom?
the basic building block of all matter
what are atoms made of?
protons, nuetrons and electorns.
what are protons and neutrons made of?
quarks, heutrinos
What are electrons made of?
bosons, leptons, muons
How many different kinds of atoms are there?
How are atoms distinguished
by number of protons, number of neautrons (atomic number)
What is the atomic mass
the total numbers of particles in the nucleus
what is an element?
a pure substance, a basic pur substance made up of only one kind of atoms
what is a molecule
A particle made up of two or more atoms (could be the same, could be different)
what is a compound
a chemically combined molecule made of 2 or more kinds of atoms
atomic theory: 1st
Democritus and Aristotle (460BC-370BC life)
democritus: you divide and divide unti lyou get atomos, which means indivisble and each atom is unique to the material
Aristotle: four elemtns acan be transformed into eachother
atomic theory: 2nd
John Dalton (1803)
all matter is made of atoms whcih cannot be destroyed or split and all of the element's atoms are the same and a chemical reaction is a rearrangement of atoms
atomic theory: 3rd
J.J. Thomson (1897)
discovered electron and imagined an atom was like a jigsaw puzzle
atomic theory: 4th
Ernest Rutherford (1908-1911)
Proved the "raision bread" theory was incorrect and did exeperiments with Alpha particles
suggested atom was
1. a core
2. a ring of electrons
atomic theory: 5th
Neils Bohr(1913)
applied quantum theory to Rutherfords and said electrons traveled in orbits
atomic theory: 6th
Werner Heisenberg/Erwin Schroedinger (1923)
Heisenburg: thought of the uncertainty principle'
Schroedinger: If light bounces off an electron a momentum exchange occors between light and the electron
what is glass?
an amorphous, under cooled liquid of extremely high viscosity which has all the apperances of a solid
What is amporphous
Has no set crystalline structure and random particle posistions.
What is undercooled
way below its melting point
What is viscosity
resistnance to flow
What are the ingrediants in glass
75% silica/ Silcion dioxide
20% soda ash (reduces melting point of sand from 2000degrees to 800 degrees)
5% limestone (makes glass insoluable in water)
decidous trees
Hard woods
leaves fall off but come back
strength, heavy, and durable
nice color and grain
coniferous trees
needle trees
lighter weight, strong yet light
quick groowing
Microscopic trees
wood cells are mostly water
cells are linked in chains (polymers)
What is density?
a measure of how much stuff(mass)is packed into a certain amount of space(volume)
what is the formula for density
mass divided by volume
what is the formula for volume
what are characteristics of metal?
shiny-can be polished but tarnished easily
what is tarnish?
a chemical reaction with enviornment
What does metal conduct?
electricy because the particles pass electrons easily
and heat because the particles are packed tightly together
what is corrosion?
the electrochemical degradation of a substance caused by reaction with its enviornment
What is electrochemical degradation?
making a substance "go down" or become worse
What is the activity series?
what column the elements fall into
What are the most common forms of corrosion?
calcium + oxygen turns into calcium oxide

iron + odygen turns into iron oxide (rust)
What is a replacement reaction?
a reaction with an acidic enviornment in which one element is replaced with another
What are some alloys?
bronze: copper + tin
brass: copper + zince
steel: iron + carbon
gold: white + gold
What are some characteristics of plastic?
durable, compound (usually hydrocarbon base), synthetic (man made), easily shaped or molded,
What is a polymer?
a chain of monomers
What is a monomer?
a particle that has the properties necessary to form a chain.
What is granite?
an igneous rock with volcanic origins
solidifided lava/magma
What is marble?
a metomorphic rock made of carbon that has been heated, pressed, twisted, folded, etc.
What is concrete?
cement (limestone powder, silcion dioxide, alumina) aggregate (crushed rocks) and water
what is limestone?
A sedimentary rock made of carbon that is layers of crushed pressed seachells and "critters"