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12 Cards in this Set

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Binary Fission
Splitting of cells to form 2 identical offspring ex. prokaryotes
What happens before mitosis?
Chromosomes copy the DNA so that there are 2 sister chromatids that are identical. The chromatids are attached by a centromere. Chromatids will seperate during mitosis resulting in 2 identical sets of DNA
How many pairs of Chromosomes do Body (Somatic) cells have?
They have 23 pairs of chromosomes. Each pair is called a homogolous chromosomes because it codes for the same trait. Ex. each person gets half (haploid) of the info from the mother and father for their body features which was carried in the sex cell or gamete. When the gametes fuse, it becomes a zygote with the fill (dipoid) info.
Of the 23 pairs of chromosomes, identify them?
1 pair is sex chromosomes (XX female, XY man) and the other 22 pairs of autosomes, which determine all other characterisitics.
What are Karyotypes?
A picture that shows the shape, size, and # of chromosomes.
What causes Down syndrome?
Trisomy 21-extra chromosomes at 21st pair--> Down Syndrome--< occurs as a result of the chromosomes not seperating properly.
What does a mutation do?
Its a changing in the actual chromosome structure. ex. deletion, duplication, inversion, translocation
What are the cell types?
1. Interphase- phrase that the cell spends for most of its time in.
-G1 phase- cell grows
-S phase- synthesis(produces a copy) of DNA
-G2 phase- organelles are reproduced getting ready for cell divison
2. Mitosis -cell division
-Prophase- chromatin coils up and chromosomes become visible.
-Metaphase- chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell
-Anaphase- centromers divide and sister chromatives move apart
-Telophase- nucleus reforms in each cell and cytokineses (cytoplasm splitting) begins.
What happens in mitosis that only happens in a plant cell?
A cell plate forms between the cells to form the cell wall.
What does the DNA look like inside the cell?
It is in a circle.
What is a Centramer?
It connects sister chromatids.
What is cytopkineses?
When the cytoplasm splits.