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37 Cards in this Set

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Biosphere
the part of Earth that supports life, including the top portion of Earth's crust, all the waters that cover Earth's surface, and the surrounding atmosphere
ecosystem
all the organisms living in an area and the nonliving features of their environment
ecology
the study of interactions that occur among organisms and their environment
population
all the organisms in an ecosystem that belong to the same species
community
all the populations in an ecosystem
habitat
the place in which an organism lives
competition
takes place when more than one organism seeks the same resource at the same time. Competition limits population size.
limiting factor
anything that restricts the number of individuals in a population
carrying capacity
the largest number of individuals of one species that an ecosystem can support over time
producer
an organism that uses an outside energy source, such as the Sun to make energy-rich molecules
consumer
an organism that cannot make its own energy-rich molecules
herbivore
plant eater
carnivore
animal that eats other animals
omnivore
animal that eats plants and other animals
decomposer
consumes waste and dead organisms
food chain
a simple model of the feeding relationships in an ecosystem
population density
the size of a population in a specific area
biotic potential
the highest rate at which a population would grow under ideal conditions (if no limiting factors restricted the growth of a population)
symbiosis
any close relationship between species
mutualism
a symbiotic relationship in which both species benefit
commensalism
a symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits and the other is not affected
parasitism
a symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits but the other is harmed
niche
how an organism survives, how it obtains food and shelter, how it finds a mate and cares for its young, and how it avoids danger (special adaptations may be part of an organism's niche)
predator
a consumer that captures and eats other consumers
prey
an organism captured by a predator
Living Earth relationship
Organism->Habitat->Population->Community->Ecosystem

Each organism lives in a habtitat. All of the organisms of the same species in an ecosystem make up a population. All the populations in an ecosystem make up a community. All of the communities, and the non-living features of their environment make up an ecosystem.
Elements affecting population size
limiting factors, carrying capacity, biotic potential, birth & death rates, movement
Predator/Prey relationship
Predator captures and eats prey. The presence of predators usually increases number of species that can live in an ecosystem by limiting size of prey populations, so that more food and other resources are available, reducing competition between species. (Rabbit/Fox lab)
a habitat must provide ...
food, shelter, temperature and moisture (eg. trees are woodpecker's hospital)
competition's effect on population
limits size
competition most intense
between members of same species
population size indicates...
whether population is healthy and growing
How to measure the size of a population
1. trap, mark & measure
2. sample count
elements that effect population size
1. limiting factors
2. carrying capacity
3. biotic potential
4. birth & death rates
5. movement of organisms into or out of an area
exponential growth
the larger a population becomes, the faster it grows
photosynthesis
process used by producers which use the Sun and contain chlorophyll
chemosynthesis
process used by producers found near volcanic vents on ocean floor, which use mineral molecules as an energy source