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101 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the 26 small bones that make up your back.
vertebrae
the spaces in bone contain a soft connective tissue called
_________.
marrow
a connective tissue that is more flexible than bone.
cartilage
most of the joints in our body that allow a wide range of movements are __________.
moveable joints
joints in the body that connect bones in a way that allows little or no movement.

example:
immovable joints

example:skull
a place where two bones come together
joint
muscles that aren't under your conscious control
involuntary muscles

ex.control breathing and digesting food
muscles that are under your control
voluntary muscles

ex. control breathing and digesting food
allows the greatest range of motion
ball and socket joint

ex. bones in skull, ribs to sternum
allows one bone to rotate over another
pivot joint

ex. the top of your neck
allows extensive forward or backward motion
hinge joint

ex. your knee
allows one bone to slide over another
gliding joint

ex. there is a gliding joint in your wrist.
a strong tissue by which the bones in movable joints are held together
ligament
a condidtion in which the body's bones become weak and break easily
osteoporosis
muscles that are attached to the bone of your skeleton
skeletal muscles

ex. biceps, triceps
involuntary muscles
smooth muscles
a tissue that has characteristics in common with both smooth and skeletal muscles. found only in heart.
cardiac muscles
the outermost layer of the skin
epidermis
a bacterial infection of the skin that can be difficult to control. it is related to hygieneand also blocks pores, results in pimple and pustules.
acne
the process by which your body breaks down food into small nutrient molecules. there are two types - mechanical and chemical.
digestion
the process by which nutrient molecules pass through the wall of your digestive system into your blood. materials that are not absorbed, such as fiber, are eliminated from the body as wastes.
absorption
a process that speeds up chemical reactions in your body, the chemical in saliva that digests starch is enzymes.
enzyme
a flap of tissue that is on the front of your windpipe or trachea, preventing the food from entering.
epiglottis.
a muscular tube that connects the mouth to the stomach
esophagus
a thick, slippery substance produced by the body.
mucus
involuntary waves of muscle contraction that keep food moving along in one direction through the digestive system.
peristalsis
a j shaped, muscular pouch located in the abdomen that expands to hold all of the food that is swallowed
stomach
the fluid that is released when your mouth waters. saliva mixes with food, moistening it and making it slippery.
saliva
a basic unit of structure and function in a living thing
cell
forms the boundary of the cell
cell membrane
the control center of the cell that directs the cell's activities including reproduction and contains information that determines the cell's characteristics. it also regulates what leaves the cell.
nucleus
the area between the cell membrane and the nucleus
cytoplasm
a group of similar cells that perform a specific function in an organism
tissue

ex. nerve, muscle, epithelial or connective tissue
a body tissue that contracts or shortens, making body parts move
muscle tissue

ex. heart, bicep
a body tissue that carries messages back and forth between the brain and every other part of the body
nerve tissue

ex. spinal cord
a body tissue that provides support for the body and connects all of its parts
connective tissue

ex. bone, located in rib cage, arms, legs
a body tissue that covers the surfaces of the body, inside and out.
epilethial tissue

ex. outermost layer of the skin, lining of digestive system
a structure in the body that is composed of different kinds of tissue
organ

ex. lung, stomach, heart, liver, pancreas, brain, skin
a group of organs that work together to perform a major function in the body
organ system

ex. digestive, skeletal, nervous, muscular, respiratory, circulatory, excertory, immune, endocrine, reproductive
the process by which an organism's internal environment is kept stable in spite of changes in the external environment
homeostasis
the reaction of a person's body and mind to threatening, challenging, or disturbing events.
stress
What are some physical responses to stress?
Sweating increases
Heart rate increases
More blood goes to the brain
Muscles tense
Hearing ability increases
Pupils dialate
Digestive system shuts down
__________ - a living thing. in case of human beings, they are a multi-cellular organism made up of many organ systems. an organism could however be as small as one cell.
organism
the part of the digestive system where most of the chemical digestion and absorption takes place
small intestine
the largest and heaviest organ inside the body; it breaks down substances and eliminates nitrogen from the body
liver
a substance that breaks up by particles
bile
the organ that stores bile
gallbladder
a triangular organ that lies between the stomach and the first part of the small intestine, it produces enzymes
pancreas
millions of tiny finger shaped structures that cover the surface of the small intestine
villi
the last section of the digestion system, no digestion takes place past this point.
large intestine
a short tube at the end of the large intestine, waste material is compressed into a solid form
rectum
a muscular (sphincter) opening at the end of the rectum, through which waste materials are eliminated from the body.
anus
________ - produced in mouth, breaks down starches into sugar
salivary amylase
________ - produced in stomach, breaks down proteins into shorter chains of amino acids.
pepsin
________ - produced in stomach, provides an acid environment for pepsin, kills bacteria
hydrochloric acid
the outermost layer of skin
epidermis
a pigment, or colored substance, that gives skin its color
melanin
openings in your skin
pores
structures in the dermis which strands of hair grow in
follicles
a disease in which some body cells divide uncontrollably
cancer
What does the dermis contain?
Pores, follicles, nerves, blood vessels, sweat glands, oil glands
Proteins from animals that provide you with all the essential amino acids.
complete proteins
proteins that come from plants and don't provide you with all the essential amino acids.
incomplete proteins.
Calorie w. a capital "C" is used to measure energy in ________.
foods
Your daily energy requirement depends on a person's ________. The more active you are, the _________ your energy needs are.
daily activity level

higher
nutrients which are composed of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen {C-H-O}, and are a major source of energy.
carbohydrates
the substances in food that provide raw materials and energy the body needs to carry out all the essential body processes.
nutrients
one gram of carbs provides you with ___ Calories of energy.
4
high energy nutrients that are composed of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen
fats
nutrients that contain nitrogen as well as carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
proteins
what are the three things that are composed of carbon, hydrogen(cho), and oxygen?
carbs, fats, and proteins
a strong connective tissue that attaches muscle to bone
tendon
What are the differences between incomplete and complete proteins?
Complete proteins come from animals, so they provide you w/ all the essential amino acids. Incomplete proteins come from plants, so they don't provide you with all of the essential amino acids.
the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of one gram of water by 1 celcius degree.
one calorie
simple carbohydrates
sugars
made up of many sugar molecules linked together in a chain
complex carbohydrates
starch is a complex carbohydrate found in a plant food such as
potatoes, rice, corn, pasta, cereals, and bread
a complex carbohydrate found in plant foods. can't be broken down into sugar molecules by your body.
fiber
Is fiber considered a nutrient? Why or why not?
Fiber isn't a nutrient, because it can't be digested.
How many (percentwise) of your Calories should come from carbs?
50% to 60%.
Fats contain more than ____ as much energy as an equal amount of _______.
twice

carbohydrates
Unsaturated fats are usually _______ at room temperature.
liquid
Saturated fats are usually _________ at room temperature.
solid
Foods that contain saturated fat often contain _______.
cholesterol
Nutritionists recommend that no more than ____ of the Calories eaten each day come from fats.
30%
Your ________ makes all the cholesterol your body needs. Therefore, cholesterol __ __ a necessary part of your diet.
liver

is not
the fat souble vitamins are
A, D, E, K
How many amino acids are there?
20
____ of your daily intake should come from proteins.
12%.
Your body can make about ____ of the amino acids. ______ amino acids must come from your _______.
half

Essential
food
fat souble vitamins are stored in ____________.
fatty tissue
Nutrients that aren't made by living things
minerals
You get minerals by eating
plant foods or animals that eat plants.
a mineral needed for strong bones and teeth
calcium
makes up about 65% of a person's body weight
water
what is the most important nutrient
water
How much water should you drink every day under NORMAL conditions?
2 Liters.
If the weather is hot or you are exercising, should you drink more water than 2 Liters a day? Why?
Yes, you need to drink even more to replace the water you lose in sweat.
From which group in the food pyramid should most of your servings come from?
Bread, cereal, rice, and pasta group.
What are the groups in the food pyramid?
Fats oils sweets, Milk cheese yogurt, Meat poultry fish drybeans eggs nuts, fruit, vegetables.
What group from the food pyramid should you use sparingly?
Fats, oils, and sweets.