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155 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
One type of atom
2 or more types of atoms bonded together
Positive Ions are made..
When metal atoms lost electrons
Negative Ions are made..
When non-metal atoms gain electrons
Covalent bonding is..
the sharing of electrons between non-metals
Ionic Bonding is..
The giving/taking of electrons between metals and non-metals
Metallic Bonding is..
The electrostatic attraction between metal atoms and the ‘sea’ of electrons (delocalised)
Carbon has __ outer shell electrons
Carbon can covalently bond with up to __ other atoms
The bonds created need to add up to __ to have..
4..a stable valency of 8 electrons
What organic compounds consist only of hydrogen and carbon?
only single bonds (prefix –ane) 2C+2=H
contain a double bond (prefix –ene) 2C=H
contain a triple bond (prefix –yne) 2C-2=H
Alcohols have..
Hydrogen, carbon and oxygen atoms.
Alcohol prefix..
Complete combustion
When hydrocarbons or alcohols are burnt, oxygen, water and carbon dioxide is produced. Electricity can be produced from the heat.
Incomplete combustion
Oxygen is limited in the reaction. Usually characterised by a smoky, black flame, sometimes carbon monoxide.
What is Current and what is it measured in?
Flow of electrons. Measured in Amps.
What is Voltage and what is it measured in?
Amount of energy available from source. Measured in Volts
What is Resistance and what is it measured in?
How much a load restricts and reduces current. Measured in Ohms.
What is an Electromagnet?
A magnet in which magnetism is created with electricity.
What is Frequency?
The number of waves that pass a given point per second. Measured in Hertz (Hz)
What is Amplitude?
The distance between the midpoint and the top of the wave.
What is Wavelength?
The straight distance between a whole wave
What does AM stand for and what is it?
Amplitude Modulation. Information is sent through in different amplitudes.
What does FM stand for and what is it?
Frequency Modulation.
Information is sent through in different frequencies.
Coaxial cables consist of..
A copper core, insulation, copper wire braiding, and a protective plastic sheathing.
What is an optical fibre?
A strand/tube of glass with a coating that traps and conducts light.
What does coherent mean?
All waves are of the same frequency and wavelength.
What roles do microwaves play in communication?
Transmit digital signals through the air between stations as well as link satellites for long-distance communication.
What is a gene?
A hereditary trait that controls a particular characteristic.
Where are genes located? How many?
Genes are located on long, coiled, thread-like structures called chromosomes. Each one has thousands of genes across its length.
What is a homologous pair?
A pair of chromosomes (one from each parent)
What are diploid cells?
Cells in the body that contain two of each type of chromosome.
What are haploid cells?
Gametes - reproductive cells (sperm and egg)
What are Alleles?
Variations of the same gene
Mitosis is..
The reproduction and division of body cells (eg skin).
Meiosis is..
The reproduction and division of sex cells.
What is co-dominance?
A heterozygous organism’s phenotype is a combination of homozygous organisms (eg roan).
What is incomplete dominance?
Two heterozygous organisms’ offspring has the same phenotype of a homozygous organism.
Refracted rays bend..
Towards the normal
The normal is..
perpendicular to the surface
What is hyperopia?
Long sightedness
What is myopia?
Short sightedness
What type of lens can correct myopia?
What type of lens can correct hyperopia?
What is ELF and how far can it go?
Extra Low Frequency. They can penetrate water and have the longest wavelengths
What is MF and how far can it go?
Medium Frequency. They can bounce off the ionosphere. Suitable for radio signals.
What is UHF and how far can it go?
Ultra High Frequency. They can pass through the ionosphere and go into space.
Radio waves? (Wavelength and Frequency)
Longest wavelength and lowest frequency.
What are microwaves?
Extremely high frequency radio waves.
What is infrared?
Just below visible red light.
What are near infrared waves used for?
Remote controls.
What are far infrared waves used for?
Heating purposes.
X-rays? (wavelength and frequency)
Short wavelength and high frequency.
What is an isotope?
An element with a different number of neutrons to protons.
What is a radioactive isotope?
An isotope that emits radiation.
What is "half-life"?
The period of time in which it takes for radiation to decrease by half.
What is a nebula?
A cloud of dust and gas in space.
What is a protostar?
An object that will eventually be a star.
What is another term for outer space?
Interstellar medium.
What is the name for the original super continent?
What two continents did Pangaea split into?
Laurasia and Gondwanaland
What do spreading zones create?
Mid-ocean ridges.
What is a result of fault zones?
What is created by Subduction zones?
Earthquakes and volcanoes.
What is created by collision zones?
What is a fossil?
The remains or an imprint of an organism that lived at least 10 000 years ago.
Where are fossils found?
In sedimentary rock.
How old is the earth though to be?
4.6 billion years old.
How old are the oldest known fossils?
3.5 billion years old.
Which earthquake waves travel the fastest, and through water and solids?
P (primary) waves.
Which earthquake waves pass only through solids and come after P waves?
S (secondary) waves.
What does the atomic number tell you about the element?
The number of protons.
What is the atomic mass number?
The number of protons plus the number of neutrons.
What is a molecule?
A small group of two or more atoms that are chemically bonded.
What is a compound?
Made up of two or more elements.
How are compounds formed?
Two or more different atoms share or exchange atoms, forming a chemical bond.
What is a crystal lattice?
Negative and positive ions electrostatically attracted.
What are polyatomic ions?
Ions that contain more than one element.
What is a combustion reaction?
A reaction when a substance reacts with oxygen, releasing heat and sometimes light.
What is a corrosion reaction?
A reaction when a substance reacts with surface compounds such as oxides, sulfides and carbonates.
What is a precipitation reaction?
A reaction where 2 soluble ionic compounds (aq)react to form an insoluble compound.
What is an acid on metal reaction?
An acid reacts with a metal to give a salt (ionic compound) and hydrogen gas.
What is a neutralisation reaction?
An acid plus a base gives a salt (ionic compound) and water.
What is a decomposition reaction?
A reaction in which a substance absorbs enough energy for one or more of its bonds to break.
What is our main source of energy?
Fossil fuels (eg oil, coal and natural gas).
What is a superconductor?
An element or ceramic compound that will conduct electricity without resistance below a certain temperature.
What is an alloy?
A mixture of metals combined in ratios that produce desirable properties.
What are ceramics?
Materials like clay, glass and concrete.
What are plastics made of?
Crude oil.
What is a scientific theory?
A tested scientific belief based on many observations.
What are organelles?
Small structures located in cells.
What is the difference between eukaryotic and prokaryotic?
Eukaryotic means the cell has a nucleus, whereas prokaryotic means the cell has no nucleus.
What is the order or cells?
Cells -> Tissues -> Organs -> Systems (eg circulatory)
What is a multicellular organism?
An organism that is composed of many specialized cells.
How many different varieties of cells are in the human body?
Around 200.
What is the equation for photosynthesis?
carbon dioxide + water + light --> glucose + oxygen
What does homeostatis mean?
The internal environment remains the same regardless of external changes.
What is the role of the hypothalamus?
To send out hormones to make changes in the body when changes are detected by the nervous system and sensory receptors.
In DNA, what does A + T stand for?
Adenine, Thymine.
In DNA, what does C + G stand for?
Cytosine, Guanine.
What binds the strands of DNA together?
Alternating strands of sugar and phosphate. Sugar is on the DNA.
What is a codon?
A set of 3 genes.
Each codon’s combination of bases triggers the creation of an amino acid (one of the 20), which in turn is part of a protein strand.
Each codon’s combination of bases triggers the creation of an amino acid (one of the 20), which in turn is part of a protein strand.
What is the role of proteins?
Proteins determine characteristics.
What is cloning?
Producing exact, multiple copies of a single gene or cell.
What are plasmids?
Circular pieces of DNA found naturally in bacteria.
What is therapeutic cloning?
The cloning of certain body tissue, muscles or cells.
How is therapeutic cloning done?
A person’s DNA is extracted from a body cell and placed in an egg. After a few days, the stem cells are removed from the egg and inserted back into the body.
What is a transgenic organism?
An animal or plant that has been inserted with modified genes.
What is natural selection (survival of the fittest)?
The animals most suited to the environment survive. They reproduce, and create a whole generation that suite.
What is an example of comparative anatomy?
Horses. Their ancestors from 60 million years ago in fossils with common forelimbs.
What is an example of comparative embryology?
Human embryos, in comparison to other animals with similar vertebrates.
What is an example of biogeography?
Birds that separate and evolve into their own species.
What does the biosphere comprise of?
Parts of the Earth's crust and the atmosphere.
What is a habitat?
The place and environment in which an organism lives.
What is eutrophication?
The process in which polluted water becomes stagnant. Including the algae that feed on the water and the bacteria that decomposes the dead plants.
What percentage of the atmosphere is nitrogen?
Why are plants called consumers?
They are the initial food source for consumers, which continues into a food chain.
What is used to predict and explain changes in a community?
Biomass and energy pyramids.
How did fossil fuels come into existence?
They formed in the earth's crust millions of years ago.
How fast can alpha particles travel?
One tenth the speed of light.
What is the limit of alpha particles?
Thick sheet of paper.
What is the limit of beta particles?
1mm sheet of aluminium.
How fast can beta particles travel?
Nine tenths the speed of light.
What is a use of radioisotopes?
Radiotherapy. Cancer cells are sensitive to nuclear radiation.
What causes tides?
The gravitational pull on the moon.
What is the formula to find the final speed?
final speed = starting speed + acceleration x time taken
What is the formula for acceleration?
change in speed/time taken for change
What is displacement?
How far you end up from where you started, and in which direction.
What is velocity?
Speed in a given direction.
What is an igneous rock?
A rock that has solidified from magma.
What is a sedimentary rock?
Rocks that can be taken by fluids.
What is a metamorphic rock?
A rock that has been changed due to pressure and/or heat.
What is oxidisation?
The process in which an element loses electrons to become an ion.
What do metals oxidise to form?
Positive Ions.
What are the 2 substances required for iron to rust?
Oxygen and water
State 2 things that speed up the rate of rusting.
Salt and heat.
What is displacement?
How far you end up from where you started, and in which direction.
What is speed?`
The rate in which distance is covered.
How do you calculate average speed?
distance travelled / time taken
What is velocity?
Speed in a given direction
How do you calculate distance?
speed x time
How do you calculate acceleration?
change in speed (start and finish) / time taken for change
How do you calculate final speed?
starting speed + acceleration x time taken
What is a force?
A push, pull or twist that causes an object to change in speeds direction or shape.
What is Newton's first law?
Anything at rest will stay at rest unless acted upon. Anything that is moving will keep moving at the same speed, in the same direction unless a force changes it.
What is mass?
The amount of matter in an object
What is Newton's second law?
An object will accelerate if a force is applied to it. Acceleration will depend on the mass of the object and the amount of force applied.
What is Newton's third law?
For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction force.
What is gravity?
The rate of acceleration at which things fall.
What is weight?
The force on a mass caused by gravity.
What is terminal velocity?
Where an object is falling at a constant speed and there can be no more acceleration.