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40 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
algae
plantlike protists
allele
different forms of a gene that control a trait
bacteria
single-celled organisms that lack a nucleus; prokaryote
biologist
one who studies biology
cell
basic unit of structure and function in an organism
cell membrane
cell structure that controls which substances can enter or leave the cell
cell wall
rigid layer of nonliving material that surrounds the cells of plants and some other organisms
chlorophyll
green pigment found in the chloroplasts of plants, algae, and some bacteria
chromosomes
rod-shaped structures that carry information that controls inherited characteristics such as eye color and blood type
controlled
experiment
an experiment in which all factors are kept the constant except one
cytoplasm
region of a cell that contains gel-like material and cell structures
data
observations and measurements made in an experiment
diffusion
process by which molecules move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
DNA
deoxyribonucleic acid; the genetic material that carries information about an organism and is passed from parent of offspring
dominant allele
allele whose trait always show up in the organism when the allele is present
double helix
twisted ladder or spiral staircase structure of the DNA molecule
evolution
process by which a species gradually changes over time
fertilization
the process in which an egg cell and sperm cell join to form a new organism
gene
segment of DNA on a chromosome that controls a specific trait
genotype
type of gene or allele combinations
heredity
passing of traits from parents to offspring
hybrid
organism that has two different alleles for a trait; organism that is heterozygous for a particular trait
hypothesis
a possible explanation for a set of observations or an answer to a scientific question
karyotype
picture of all the chromosomes in a cell arranged in pairs
manipulated
variable
the factor you change in an experiment
meiosis
process that occurs in the formation of sex cells; produces reproductive cells with half the number of chromosomes
mitochondria
"powerhouses" of the cell; converts energy in food molecules to energy the cell can use to carry out its function
mitosis
stage of the cell cycle during which the cell's nucleus divides into two new nuclei producing two identical cells
nucleic acids
organic molecule, contain the instructions that cells need to carry out all the functions of life
nucleus
cell organelle that contains nucleic acids, the chemical instructions that direct the cell's activities
organelle
tiny cell structure that carries out a specific function within the cell like a tiny organ
organism
a living thing
pasteurization
process of heating food to a temperature that is high enough to kill most harmful bacteria without changing the taste of the food
pedigree
chart or "family tree" that tracks which members of a family have a particular
phenotype
organism's physical appearance, or visible traits
probability
number that describes how likely it is that an event will occur
Punnet square
chart that shows all the possible combinations of alleles that can result from a genetic cross
recessive allele
allele whose trait is hidden or masked whenever a dominant allele is present
rna
ribonucleic acid; a nucleic acid that plays an important role in the production of proteins
scientific theory
well-tested concept that explains a wide range of observations