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47 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
trait
a notable feature or quality in a person
DNA
deoxyribonucleic acid, in almost all living organisms as the main part of chromosomes and it's the carrier of genetic information.
Nucleus
organelle present in most eukaryotic cells and is the carrier of genetic material.
Gene
a unit of heredity that the offspring inherits from the parent and is held (by the offspring) to determine some characteristic of the offspring.
Chromosomes
a threadlike structure of nucleic acids and protein found in the nucleus of most living cells, carrying genetic information in the form of genes.
proteins
compounds that consist of large molecules composed of one or more long chains of amino acids and are an essential part of all living organisms
heredity
the passing on of physical or mental characteristics genetically from one generation to another
inherited
the passing of traits from the parents to the child
dominant
the allele that “masks” the other
Recessive
the allele that is hidden by another
Genotype
genetic information
Phenotype
physical traits
Incomplete Dominance
when neither allele hides the other and the result is a mix of the two
Asexual reproduction
(reproduction without the fusion of gametes) when the cell divides into two identical cells
Budding
outgrowth from an organism that separates to form a new cell without sexual reproduction
Sexual Reproduction
reproduction with two parents where the two gametes unite to form a zygote.
Mutation
the changing of the structure of a gene; caused by the alteration of single base units in DNA, or the insertion, deletion, or rearrangement of larger sections of genes or chromosomes
Genetic Disorders
a disease or condition caused by an absent or defective gene or by a chromosomal irregularity
Gamete
male or female haploid cell (has half the amount of chromosomes) that unites with the opposite sex cell to form a zygote
Egg/Sperm Cell
egg cell is female sex cell and sperm cell is the male sex cell
Fertilization
the union of female and male gametes
Zygote
The cell that is created from a sperm and an egg cell
Diploid Cell
a cell with the full number of chromosomes
Haploid Cell
a cell with half the amount of chromosomes
Meiosis
a type of cell division that results in two cells each with half the chromosome number of the parent cell (purpose is to produce gametes)
Mitosis
a type of cell division that results in two cells each having the same number and kind of chromosomes as the parent (this is in asexual reproduction when the cell divides into two identical cells)
Gregor Mendel
demonstrated the transmission of characteristics in a predictable way by genes that remain intact and independent between generations and do not blend, although they may mask one another's effects. (using pea plants)
Eukaryotic Cells
an organism consisting of a cell or cells in which the genetic material is DNA in the form of chromosomes contained within a nucleus
Prokaryotic Cells
single-cell organism without a nucleus
Homozygous
when you have the same allele for a trait
trait
a notable feature or quality in a person
DNA
deoxyribonucleic acid, in almost all living organisms as the main part of chromosomes and it's the carrier of genetic information.
Nucleus
organelle present in most eukaryotic cells and is the carrier of genetic material.
Gene
a unit of heredity that the offspring inherits from the parent and is held (by the offspring) to determine some characteristic of the offspring.
Chromosomes
a threadlike structure of nucleic acids and protein found in the nucleus of most living cells, carrying genetic information in the form of genes.
proteins
compounds that consist of large molecules composed of one or more long chains of amino acids and are an essential part of all living organisms
heredity
the passing on of physical or mental characteristics genetically from one generation to another
inherited
the passing of traits from the parents to the child
dominant
the allele that “masks” the other
Recessive
the allele that is hidden by another
Genotype
genetic information
Phenotype
physical traits
Incomplete Dominance
when neither allele hides the other and the result is a mix of the two
Asexual reproduction
(reproduction without the fusion of gametes) when the cell divides into two identical cells
Budding
outgrowth from an organism that separates to form a new cell without sexual reproduction
Heterozygous
when you have two different alleles for a trait
Allele
the different versions of a trait