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93 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What do we call the study of the earth?
Geology
In what three major sections can the earth's interior be divided, based on its composition?
Crust, Mantle, Core
What do we call earth's outer layer of rock?
The Crust
Where is the earth's crust thickest?
Beneath mountain ranges (on the continents)
Where is the earth's crust thinnest?
beneath the oceans
What rock largely composes the portion of the earth's crust beneath the continents?
Granite
What rock composes the portion of the earth's crust beneath the oceans?
basalt
what is the term for deposits of sand and mineral fragments, usually laid down by water?
sediments
What is the most abundant element in the earth's crust?
oxygen
What is the second most abundant element?
silicone
What is the third most abundant element?
aluminum
What do we call the middle layer of the earth's interior?
the mantle
What is the name of the boundary between the crust and the mantle?
Mohorovicic discontinuity (Moho)
What are the three divisions of the mantle?
upper mantle, transition zone, lower mantle
what term is used to describe mantle rocks under such high pressure that they can be slowly deformed without breaking?
plastic rock
What do we call the central portion of the earth?
The core
What is the name of the boundary between the mantle and the core?
Gutenberg Discontinuity
What are the two divisions of the earth's core?
Outer Core and Inner core
Which core is thought to consist of a very hot, very dense liquid?
outer core
Is the inner core thought to be a solid, liquid, gas, or plasma?
a solid
What do we call the theory that the earth's crust is composed of several plates that "float" like rats on the plastic rock of the upper mantle?
Plate tectonics
What do advocates of plate tectonics call the region of plastic rock in the upper mantle?
the asthenosphere
what collective term is used to describe the plates?
lithosphere
What is the name of the hypothetical land mass that some people believe once contained all of the present-day continents?
Pangaea
What is a fault?
a fracture zone formed when a layer of rock breaks and moves
What are the three types of faults?
normal fault, strike-slip fault, thrust fault
which type of fault involves one layer of rock being pushed on top of other rocks?
thrust fault
Which type of fault occurs when rocks along one side of a fault sink vertically?
normal fault
What type of geologic structure is formed by the bending or buckling of rocks under great force?
a fold
What do we call an archlike fold produced when rocks buckle upward during folding?
anticline
Which type of fold is formed when rocks are bent downward during the folding process, producing a trough-shaped structure?
syncline
What are the four broad categories of mountains, based on how they apparently formed?
Volcanic, domed, folded, fault-block
What type of mountains are thought to have been formed when the rocks along one side of a fault were forced upward while the rocks on the other side sank?
Fault-block mountains
What type of mountains are thought to have been formed with the edges of two adjacent rock layers were pushed violently together, causing the layers to buckle like a wrinkled rug?
folded mountains
what is the largest known volcanic mountain on earth?
Mauna Kea (part of the island Hawaii)
What mountain range in South Dakota is an example of domed mountains?
the Black Hills
What two U.S. mountain ranges are mentioned in the text as examples of folded mountains?
Appalachians, Rockies
What two U.S. mountain ranges are mentioned in the text as examples of fault block mountains?
Great Basin and Range province; Sierra Nevada
What is an earthquake?
any trembling or shaking of the earth's crust
What is a tectonic earthquake?
an earthquake that results from sudden movements of rock beneath the earths surface
What do we call the smaller earthquakes or tremors that often follow a major earthquake at frequent interval?
aftershocks
What is the science of studying earthquakes?
Seismology
What is the primary cause of tectonic earthquakes?
the sudden movement of rock masses along a fault (faulting)
What does the elastic rebound theory state?
Rocks on either side of a fault spring back to a position of little or no strain at the moment of an earthquake, producing vibrations in the earth's crust.
What is a short cliff sometimes produced along a fault as a result of an earthquake?
Fault scarp
What term refers to smooth-faced fault scarps formed by movement along a fault?
slickensides
What major strike-slip fault is found in western California?
Aan Andreas fault
what is the focus of an earthquake?
the point at which the earthquake begins
What is the epicentre of an earthquake?
the point on the earth's surface directly above the focus
what are the three categories of earth quakes according to the depths at which they originate?
shallow-focus earthquakes, intermediate-focus earth-quakes, deep-focus earthquakes.
What type of earthquake is the most common?
Shallow focus earthquakes
What type of subsurface earthquake waves consists of a rhythmic push-pull motion in the direction of wave travel?
P Waves (primary waves)
What type of subsurface earthquake waves consist of a rhythmic side-to-side motion that occurs at right angles to the direction of wave travel?
S waves (secondary waves)
What ind of seismic waves may some times be seen moving along the ground like waves in the water.
Surface waves
What kind of instrument is used to record and study earthquake vibrations?
seismograph
What do we call the record of earthquake vibrations produced by a seismograph?
seismogram
Which type of earthquake waves travel the fastest, S waves, or P waves?
P waves first, then S waves, then surface waves.
How many seismograph stations must record an earthquake in order for scientists to be able to pinpoint the earthquake's focus and epicenter?
at least THREE
What earthquake zone borders the Pacific Ocean?
The Circum-Pacific belt
What earthquake zone extends from southern Europe into Asia?
Mediterranean-Trans-Asiatic belt
What is the most active earthquake belt in the world?
Circum-Pacific belt
What scale of earthquake strength rates earthquakes by the damage they produce?
Mercalli scale
What famous scale of earthquake strength rates earthquakes by certain characteristics of their patterns on a certain type of seismogram?
Richter Scale

(This scales going to make me famous!)
What well-known volcano in Washington's cascade Range erupted violently in 1980?
Mt. St. Helens
What is a volcano?
an opening in the earth's surface through which hot gases, ash, and molten rock are ejected from the earth's interior.
What do we call the channel in a volcano through which gases, ash and rock are ejected?
vent
What is magma?
molten rock beneath the surface of the earth
What is the study of volcanoes called?
Volcanology
What are the three categories of volcanoes?
Cinder-cone
Shield
composite
which type of volcano consists of alternating layers of lava and rock fragments (cinders), forming a symmetrical, wide based volcanic mountain?
composite volcano
Which type of broad, gently sloping volcano is formed when large quantities of highly fluid lava solidify?
Shield Volcano
Which type of volcano consists primarily of loose fragments of volcanic rock?
Cinder-cone volcano
What are three categories into which volcanoes can be classified based on their history and likelihood of eruption?
Active, dormant, extinct
What is an active volcano?
A volcano that has erupted in the last 50 years
What is a dormant volcano?
a volcano that erupted many years ago and is now inactive
What is an extinct volcano?
a volcano that will probably not erupt again.
What is the name of the narrow zone of active volcanoes that nearly encircles the Pacific Ocean Basin?
Ring of Fire
What earthquake zone does the Ring of Fire correspond to?
Circum-Pacific Belt
What two factors seem to determine the violence of a volcano's eruption?
The viscosity of the magma and the amount of the dissolved gas and the magma contains
what is Ejecta?
Any substance emitted by an active volcano
What is lava?
molten rock that flows from volcanoes
what type of solidified lava has a rough jagged surface and a crumbly texture?
AA lava
What type of solidified lava has a smooth or ropy surface?
pahoehoe lava
What type of hardened lava is often formed when molten lava is emitted underwater?
pillow lava
What is the general term for particles or blocks of solid volcanic ejecta?
pyroclasts
What are four types of pyroclasts based upon size and shape?
Volcanic ash, volcanic cinders, volcanic blocks, volcanic bombs
which type of pyroclast is formed when lava is thrown high into the air while still in liquid or semi-liquid state and hardens into rock before it hits the ground?
Volcanic bomb
What is a nuée ardente?
a superheated incandescent cloud of gas and volcanic ash that travels swiftly down a volcanic slope as a avalanche; (a glowing avalanche)
What is a huge bowl-shape crater in the ground thought to e formed by the collapse of an underground magma chamber?
caldera
what is the general term for masses of igneous rock that form when the magma hardens in cracks and fissures beneath the earth's surface?
igneous intrusions
what type of igneous intrusion consists of a vertical, sheetlike mass of igneous rock, formed when magma squeezes into a vertical fissure and hardens?
dike
What type of igneous intrusion is formed when magma squeezes into a horizontal fissure and hardens?
sill
what are two types of dome like igneous intrusions?
laccoliths and batholiths.