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12 Cards in this Set

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Condensation
changing of a gas to a liquid, molecules give up so much kinetic energy that they cannot stay in the gaseous state, the slower moving molecules “stick” and condense; it is a warming process
Evaporation
change of phase from liquid to gas that takes place at the surface of the liquid, it is a cooling process due to the lowering of the average kinetic energy of the liquid; the molecules with higher KE leave to evaporation and the lower KE molecules stay behind in the liquid
Evaporation and Condensation Rates
Sometimes they occur at the same rate- at equilibrium. Heat is transferred to and from the surroundings. The molecules and energy leaving the liquid’s surface by evaporation are counteracted by as many molecules and energy returning by condensation.

- If evaporation exceeds condensation, a liquid is cooled.

- If condensation exceeds evaporation, a liquid is warmed
Boiling
change of phase from liquid to gas beneath the surface of a liquid, gas forms and causes bubbles; vapor pressure builds up when it reaches the boiling point so that the bubbles may rise to the surface (below the boiling point, bubbles are crushed); boiling point depends on temperature AND pressure; boiling is a cooling process- this is why it remains at 100¢ªC instead of getting
Freezing
change in phase from liquid to solid, energy is leaving the liquid and molecular motion slows down; ice crystals are 6-sided
Radiation
direct transfer of energy from the sun in all directions
Convection currents
upward movement of warm air and downward movement of cool air

Convection is responsible for many weather patterns in the troposphere.

Convection is upward motion of rising warm air masses, while advection is a term for the movement of all other air masses.
Convection
transfer of heat by movement of a fluid (liquid or gas)
Conduction
heat is transferred through a solid material by direct contact of one molecule with another (faster moving molecules transfer heat to slower moving molecules)
what conducts the best heat
Solids conduct heat the best b/c molecules are closer together.
what is an example of a good insulator
Air is a good insulator, not a good conductor. Good insulation traps air. (Think about down jackets and comforters.)
Heat
energy transferred from a hotter object to a cooler one due to the movement of atoms and molecules (particles).