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88 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The process of requiring students to demonstrate understanding of the topics they study as measured by standardized tests, as well as holding educators at all levels responsible for student's performance.
Rewards that come from outside oneself, such as job security and vacations.
Extrinsic rewards
How students understanding is measured
Assessments that states and districts use to determine whether or not students will advance from one grade to another, graduate from high school, or have access to specific fields of study.
High Stakes Tests
An occupation characterized by a specialized body of knowledge with emphasis on autonomy, decision making, reflection, and ethical standards for conduct.
The process of teacher's thinking about and analyzing their work to access its effectiveness.
The capacity to control one's own professional life
Rewards that come from within oneself and are personally satisfying for emotional or intellectual reasons.
Intrinsic Rewards
Suggested changes in teaching and teacher preparation intended to increase the amount that students learn.
The knowledge and skills that teachers teach and that students are supposed to learn.
A supplement to a teacher's base salary intended to reward superior performance or work in a high-needed area.
Merit Pay
Statements specifying what students should know and what skills they should have upon completing an area of study.
Problem solving in ill-defined situations, based on professional knowledge.
Decision making
Collection of materials representative of one's work.
A person who uses specific skills to complete well-defined tasks.
Set of moral standards for acceptable professional behavior.
This law was designed to create scripture-literate citizens who would thwart Satan's trickery. It required every town of 50 or more households to hire a teacher of reading and writing.

**HISTORICAL SIGNIFICANCE - provided the legal foundation for public support of education.
Old Deluder Satan Act
Checks or written documents that parents can use to purchase educational services.
An approach to developing morality that suggests moral values and positive character traits, such as honesty and citizenship, should be emphasized, taught, and rewarded.
Character Education
A historical attempt to make education available to all children in the United States.
Common School Movement
Two year institutions developed in the early 1800s to prepare prospective elementary teachers.
Normal Schools
A secondary school that attempts to meet the needs of all students by housing them together and providing curricular option geared toward a variety of student ability levels and interests.
Comprehensive high school
A college-preparatory school originally designed to help boys prepare for the ministry or, later, for a career in law.
Latin Grammar School
A secondary school that focused on the practical needs of colonial America as a growing nation.
A free secondary school designed to meet the needs of boys not planning to attend college.
English Classical Schools
School that were originally designed in the early 1900s to provide a unique academic curriculum for early adolescent youth.
Junior High Schools
Schools, typically for grades 6-8, specifically designed to help students through the rapid social, emotional, and intellectual changes characteristic of early adolescence.
Middle School
A process of socializing people so that they adopt dominant social norms and patterns of behavior.
A policy of segregating minorities in education, transportation, housing, and other areas of public life if opportunities and facilities were considered equal to those of nonminorities.
Separate but equal
A general term for federal programs designed to eradicate poverty during the 1960s.
war on poverty
Government attempts to create more equal educational opportunities for disadvantaged youth.
Compensatory education programs
A federal compensatory education program designed to help 3- to 5- year old disadvantaged children enter school ready to learn.
Head Start
A federal compensatory education program that funds supplemental education services for low-income students in elementary and secondary schools.
Title 1
Public schools that provide innovative or specialized programs that attempt to attract students from all parts of a district.
Magnet Schools
An educational philosophy emphasizing curricula that focus on real-world problem solving and individual development
A description of the way professionals ought to practice.
Normative Philosophy
The branch of philosophy that examines questions of how we come to know what we know.
The branch of philosophy that considers what we know.
Metaphysics or ONTOLOGY
The branch of philosophy that considers values and ethics.
The branch of philosophy that examines the processes of deriving valid conclusions from basic principles.
An administrative unit within a state, defined by geographical boundaries and legally responsible for the public education of children within those boundaries.
School District
The individual who has the ultimate administrative responsibility for the school's operation.
The legal governing body that exercises general control and supervision of the schools in a state.
State Board of Education
Office responsible for implementing a state's education policy on a day-to-day basis.
State Office of Education
A group of elected lay citizens responsible for setting policies that determine how a school district operates.
Local School Board
The school district's head administrative officer, along with his or her staff, responsible for implementing that policy in the district's schools.
Monies targeted for specific groups and designated purposes.
Categorical Grants
Federal monies provided to states and school districts with few restrictions for use.
Block Grants
A school management reform movement that attempts to place increased responsibility for governance at the individual school level.
Site-based Decision Making
Alternative schools that are independently operated but publicly funded.
Charter Schools
A check or written document that parents can use to purchase educational services.
A variation on school voucher programs in which parents are given tax credits for money they spend on private-school tuition.
State Tuition Tax-Credit Plans
An educational option in which parents educate their children at home.
The process by which a state evaluates the credentials of prospective teachers to ensure that they have achieved satisfactory levels of teaching competence and are morally fit to work with youth.
A legal employment agreement between a teacher and a local school board.
Teaching Contract
A legal safeguard that provides job security by preventing teacher dismissal without cause.
A principle meaning "in place of the parents" that requires teachers to use the same judgement and care as parents in protecting the children under their supervision.
In loco parentis
A process of socializing people so that they adopt dominant social norms and patterns of behavior
Language program that emphasizes rapid transition to English.
Immersion programs
Unwanted and/or unwelcome sexual behavior that interferes with a student's sense of well-being.
Sexual Harrassment
A teacher's investment in the protection and development of the young people in his or her classes.
Children who go home to empty houses after school and who are left alone until parents arrive home from work.
Latch Key Children
Classes and schools where boys and girls are segregated for part or all of the day.
Single-gender classes and schools
Instruction that acknowledges and accommodates cultural diversity.
Culturally responsive teaching
Students' personal approaches to learning, problem solving, and processing information.
Learning Styles
The combination of family income, parents' occupations, and the level of parental education.
Socioeconomic status (SES)
The knowledge, attitudes, values, customs, and behavior patterns that characterize a social group.
Socioeconomic level composed of managers, administrators, and white-collar workers who perform nonmanual work.
Middle class
Students in danger of failing to complete their education with the skills necessary to survive in modern society.
Students placed at risk
Language program that emphasizes rapid transition to English
English as a second language (ESL) program
A general term that describes a variety of strategies schools use to accommodate cultural differences in teaching and learning.
Multicultural Education
People with low income who continually struggle with economic problems.
A person's ancestry, the way individuals identify themselves with the nation from which they or their ancestors came.
Students placed at-risk who have been able to rise above adverse conditions to succeed in school and other aspects of life.
Resilient students
The socioeconomic class composed of highly educated (usually a college degree), highly paid (usually above $170,000) professionals who make up about 5 percent of the population.
Upper Class
Description of schools before 1850.
Varied and pluralism, (No single pattern of schooling)
The public schools of today seem to have evolved from _____________ schools. Unlike district schools or pay schools, where parents had
a large role, these schools had never been accountable to
parents but tended instead to see them as a problem. Second, he
this schooling into public
schools did not increase the percentage of urban children who
went to school.
Charity Schools
Horace Mann, a Massachusetts lawyer, is frequently credited with founding the this movement. The term and movement reflected Mann's conviction that all children were entitled to the same education, regardless of gender, or economic or social class. The goal
of this movement was to promote the development of tax-supported
public schools, to train teachers, and to establish state support
and direction of these activities.the most fundamental
assumption of the movement was that the public
school would be ‘‘an agent of moral and social redemption’’ and that this redemption would be the result of ‘‘non-sectarian’’ religious
instruction. The common school movement was successful in its crusade; it
established free, tax-supported public schools in every state and
persuaded sympathetic state legislatures to pass laws barring any
public funding of sectarian schools. The catch in this formulation,
however, was that these schools were nonsectarian but not
necessarily nonreligious.
Common School Movement
What Supreme Court
decision was critically important in preserving the right of nonpublic
schools to exist, as well as the freedom of parents to send
their children to such schools.
v. Society of Sisters of Holy Names of Jesus and Mary
The first and most important tradition of education is that the __________________ is primarily
responsible for its children’s education.
Until well into the
nineteenth century, there was no single pattern of schooling. Children
and adults learned in a variety of settings, including dame
schools, public schools, academies, private schools, church
schools, Sunday schools, libraries, and lyceums. What is the term for this?
The first Archbishop of New York. Although the public schools were nominally non-denominational, Catholics were taught from the Protestant King James Bible, and many complained that their own religion was mocked. After initial failed attempts at finding a conciliatory solution to the problem, this man took the offensive in public speeches, sermons and writings during the 1840s, demanding public funds for Catholic schools. He was unsuccessful in obtaining taxpayer dollars for religious schools, but his struggles and the fiery debates between him and members of New York’s prominent Protestant establishment helped to set in motion the secularization of American public schools, a process that began in the 19th century, and continues to this day.
John Joseph Hughes
She challenged accepted notions of femininity and the education of women in the nineteenth century. To this woman, the role of women as mothers served a great purpose in the health of American democracy. She believed women’s education should prepare them for roles of responsibility and that higher education for women should train them as teachers-a natural public extension of women’s role in the family.
Catherine Beecher
He advocated vocational education for African Americans as a way to teach his community the manual skills that would help them work their way up the social ladder and improve their economic status. His vision, persuasively articulated on the lecture circuit, enhanced public awareness of the educational needs of African Americans.
Booker T Washington
His educational theories broke new ground and continue to wield influence at the dawn of the twenty-first century. As an alternative to the drill-and-recitation methods of the nineteenth century, Dewey’s School and Society (1899) espoused the notion that ideas should be grounded in experience. In Experience and Education (1938), he argued that education should be based on the child’s psychological and physical development, as well as the world outside the schoolroom.
John Dewey
Applying industrial management theory to school leadership was his idea, giving rise to modern school administration. Relying on new industrial management theory, He designed an administrative system for schools, led by a professional class of superintendents and principals. His hierarchical model professionalized school leadership and became the standard in the first half of the twentieth century.
Ellwood Cubberley
As head of the American Federation of Teachers, he became the most widely known educational figure in the history of organized labor.
Albert Shanker
She is credited with the development of the open classroom, individualized education, manipulative learning materials, teaching toys, and programmed instruction.
Maria Montessori