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77 Cards in this Set

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Force
that which changes or tends to change the state of rest or motion of an object
measured in newtons (N)
will accel. a mass of 1 kg/1m/1sec
Force of gravity on a 1 kg mass is ...
9.81 N
Velocity
distance traveled per unit time
Kinetic energy
- associates mass and motion (velocity)
- inherent energy in the motion of a body
- KE = (mass x velocity)^2 / (2)
Pressure
force exerted by atoms and molecules, generated by kinetic energy, takes into account molec wt and molec motion
Pressure = force/area
Density effect
incr density --> incr pressure

the heavier the substance the more pressure it generates
All molecules of a flowing gas or liquid pass through a pathway in the same direction and at the same _____.
velocity

steady flow!
Resistance
passive force exerted in opposition to another and active force
ex: decline in pressure which results when gas flows through a tube
Friction
resistance to flow in a tube caused by adhesive and cohesive forces
Viscosity
measure of a fluids internal resistance to flow
incr w increasing intermolecular forces
Change in pressure =
flow x resistance
Pascal's Law
when external pressure is applied to a confined fluid, it is transmitted unchanged to every point within the fluid, not affected by gravity
ex: hydraulic systems
Atmospheric pressure
total force of gas on the earth's surface
Ambient pressure
refers to pressure in the environment surrounding an organism (may be atmospheric, below atm, or above atm)
Torr
a unit of pressure sufficient to support a 1 mm column of Hg at 0 C

means to quantify pressure, = 1 mmHg
What are the units of atmospheric pressure at sealevel?
760 mmHg =
760 torr =
14.7 psi =
1000 cm H20 =
100 kPa =
1 BAR =
33 ft H20 =
29.92 in Hg
Partial pressure
pressure exerted by a single component gas of a mixture of gases
What is daltons law of partial pressures
P1 +P2 + P3... = total pressure
Critical pressure
min pressure necessary to liquefy a gas at its critical temp
Critical temperature
temp above which a gas cannot be liquefied regardless of how much pressure is applied
Absolute pressure =
gauge pressure + atmospheric pressure

0 mmHg gauge = 0 + 760 atm = 760 absolute
PSI/PSIA/PSIG
pounds per square inch
pounds per square inch absolute
pounds per square inch gauge
aneroid gauge
without mercury, hollow tube bent and sealed on one end, other end connected to the compressed gas source --> incr in pressure causes tube to straighten and gauge to read higher
This is a pathway through which a fluid may pass whose length is greater than its diameter
tube
Poiseuille's Law
relates volume of flow through a tube to diameter, pressure differential, length and viscosity
What law am I?

Volume of flow =
(pie x r^4 x change in pressure) / (8 x viscosity x length)
poiseuilles law
According to poiseuilles law, diameter and pressure are _____ proportional, length and viscosity are _____ proportional.
directly, inversely
Orifice
opening through which a fluid may pass whose diameter is greater than its length
This law relates flow through an orifice to density of the gas -- density = mw of the gas, and flow rate of a gas = 1/(sq rt of MW)
grahams law
annular flow
ring-shaped flow
molecules move through the tube in layers with its greatest velocity at the ____ of the tube.
center -- this is also called parabolic
Laminar flow
molecules move in an orderly fashion parallel to the wall of the tube
Turbulent flow
molecules move haphazardly at various angles to the wall of the tube
Distortions of the pathway can convert laminar flow to _____. When the pathway becomes linear again, the flow becomes _____.
turbulent, laminar
_____ is a determinant of gas flow when flow is laminar.
VISCOSITY

flow = 1/viscosity

laminar flow is inversely proportional to viscosity -- much more efficient in relation to delivery of liquids
______ is a determinant of gas flow when flow is turbulent.
DENSITY

Flow = 1/ sq rt of density

turbulent flow is inversely proportional to density
Viscosity is a measure of the resistance of a fluid to...
deform under shear stress
Turbulent flow has some advantages in delivery of _____.
anesthesia gases
Critical flow rate
velocity at which a liquid or gas converts from laminar to turbulent flow, exists for any given fluid at a given tube diameter
What principle am i?
In a tube of varying diameter, a decr in diameter results in an incr in velocity
bernoulli's theorem/continuity law

lateral pressure exerted by a fluid passing through a tube of varying diameter is greatest at the widest area where speed is the least
According to bernoulli, pressure is least at the ____ portion where _____ is the greatest.
narrowest, speed
Venturi effect (Extension of bernoulli)
generation of subatmospheric pressure after a constriction allows a secong gas to be drawn inward and mixed w the first gas
ex: atomizers, nebs, venturi mask, HFJV
Variable orifice flowmeter
- tapered tube w variable surface area
- narrow at bottom, wide at top
- thorpe tube
- no change in pressure w incr in flow
This is the temp at which vapor pressure of a liquid equals ambient pressure
boiling point -- incr ambient pressure yields incr boiling point
Which IA boils at room temp?
desflurane! 22.8 C
This is the temp at which, if a volume of air is cooled, moisture precipitates out -- can never be greater than air temp
dew point
This is the conversion of a volatile liquid to a gas/vapor, process by which particles escape the surface of a liquid, endothermic process, rate determined by temp of liquid
vaporization
Vaporization will eventually cease due to cooling unless..
heat is applied to the system
Temperature and vaporization are ______ proportional.
directly
Efficiency of clinical vaporization can be increased by...
increasing the surface area of the interface between the liquid and the gas
Back pressure
uneven delivery of vapor as a result of cahnges in vaporization due to pressure changes in the system during respiration (solution is baffles)
This is the pressure exerted by vapor particles in equilibrium with a liquid.
vapor pressure
What does vapor pressure depend on?
- polarity (incr polarity will decr VP)
- mass (incr pass decr VP)
- temp (incr temp incr VP)
When does equilibration of vaporization occur?
when as many molecules return to the liquid as escape from it -- atmosphere above the liquid said to be saturaed
This is the amt of heat absorbed to convert a liquid to a gas at its boiling point.
latent heat of vaporization
What is the vapor pressure of water at room temp, body temp, and boiling point?
20 C - 17.5 mmHg
37 C - 47 mmHg
100 C - 760 mmHg
What are the vapor pressures of halothane, isoflurane, desflurane, and sevoflurane?
halo- 244
iso- 240
des- 669
sevo- 160
This is a form of energy that can be transferred from a hotter substance to a cooler substance -- in the form of kinetic energy which resides in the molecules of a substance.
heat!
heat energy flows from an area of _____ to an area of ____.
high heat to low heat -- heat exchange!
Thermal conductivity
measureent of a substances ability to conduct/exchange heat

copper/bronze vaporizer housings have incr thermal conductivity!
This is the thermal state of a substance which determines whether it will give heat to another substance or receive heat from another substance -- avg kinetic energy of the molecules of a substance.
temperature!
STP
0 deg C, 273 K
760 mmHg
1 atm
22.4 L
6 x 10^23 molecules
This is the scale in which there are 180 degrees between the freezing point of water (32) and the boiling point (212)
fahrenheit
This is the scale in which there are 100 degrees between th freezing point of H20 (0) and the boiling point (100).
celsius
This is the scale in which there are 100 degrees between the freezing point of h2o (273) and the boiling point (373) -- measured in degrees from absolute zero
kelvin
Triple point of water
temp and pressure at which water vapor, liquid and solid phases are in equilibrium
Temp conversions
C = (F-32) x 0.56
F = (C x 1.8) +32
K = C + 273
calorie
unit of heat measurement, amt of heat required to raise temp of 1 g of h20 1 deg C
This is the quantity of heat which is liberated per gram molecule of a substance when it undergoes complete combustion.
heat of combustion
This is a change of state of matter requiring the input of heat energy, energy flows into the system
ICE to WATER to VAPOR
endothermic

(vaporization)
This is a change of state of matter requiring the output of heat energy, and energy flows out of the system
VAPOR to WATER to ICE
exothermic
4 types of heat loss
conduction
convection (30%)
radiation (40%)
evaporation
This is heat transferred from one point to another by direct contact
ex: pt in contact w a cold surface
conduction
This is heat loss where heat is transferred when a fluid flows over a solid while temp between the fluid and solid are different
ex: air flowing over pts body
convection
This is the transfer of heat through divergence in all directions from a center
ex: body heat moving toward other objects in a room
radiation
This is the transfer of heat through converting a liquid to a vapor, endothermic process
ex: humidification of dry inspired gas
evaporation
This is the heat produced in the body by exposure to and absorption of waves that are not in themselves hot.
ex: UV light, microwaves
conversion heat