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### 77 Cards in this Set

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 Force that which changes or tends to change the state of rest or motion of an object measured in newtons (N) will accel. a mass of 1 kg/1m/1sec Force of gravity on a 1 kg mass is ... 9.81 N Velocity distance traveled per unit time Kinetic energy - associates mass and motion (velocity) - inherent energy in the motion of a body - KE = (mass x velocity)^2 / (2) Pressure force exerted by atoms and molecules, generated by kinetic energy, takes into account molec wt and molec motion Pressure = force/area Density effect incr density --> incr pressure the heavier the substance the more pressure it generates All molecules of a flowing gas or liquid pass through a pathway in the same direction and at the same _____. velocity steady flow! Resistance passive force exerted in opposition to another and active force ex: decline in pressure which results when gas flows through a tube Friction resistance to flow in a tube caused by adhesive and cohesive forces Viscosity measure of a fluids internal resistance to flow incr w increasing intermolecular forces Change in pressure = flow x resistance Pascal's Law when external pressure is applied to a confined fluid, it is transmitted unchanged to every point within the fluid, not affected by gravity ex: hydraulic systems Atmospheric pressure total force of gas on the earth's surface Ambient pressure refers to pressure in the environment surrounding an organism (may be atmospheric, below atm, or above atm) Torr a unit of pressure sufficient to support a 1 mm column of Hg at 0 C means to quantify pressure, = 1 mmHg What are the units of atmospheric pressure at sealevel? 760 mmHg = 760 torr = 14.7 psi = 1000 cm H20 = 100 kPa = 1 BAR = 33 ft H20 = 29.92 in Hg Partial pressure pressure exerted by a single component gas of a mixture of gases What is daltons law of partial pressures P1 +P2 + P3... = total pressure Critical pressure min pressure necessary to liquefy a gas at its critical temp Critical temperature temp above which a gas cannot be liquefied regardless of how much pressure is applied Absolute pressure = gauge pressure + atmospheric pressure 0 mmHg gauge = 0 + 760 atm = 760 absolute PSI/PSIA/PSIG pounds per square inch pounds per square inch absolute pounds per square inch gauge aneroid gauge without mercury, hollow tube bent and sealed on one end, other end connected to the compressed gas source --> incr in pressure causes tube to straighten and gauge to read higher This is a pathway through which a fluid may pass whose length is greater than its diameter tube Poiseuille's Law relates volume of flow through a tube to diameter, pressure differential, length and viscosity What law am I? Volume of flow = (pie x r^4 x change in pressure) / (8 x viscosity x length) poiseuilles law According to poiseuilles law, diameter and pressure are _____ proportional, length and viscosity are _____ proportional. directly, inversely Orifice opening through which a fluid may pass whose diameter is greater than its length This law relates flow through an orifice to density of the gas -- density = mw of the gas, and flow rate of a gas = 1/(sq rt of MW) grahams law annular flow ring-shaped flow molecules move through the tube in layers with its greatest velocity at the ____ of the tube. center -- this is also called parabolic Laminar flow molecules move in an orderly fashion parallel to the wall of the tube Turbulent flow molecules move haphazardly at various angles to the wall of the tube Distortions of the pathway can convert laminar flow to _____. When the pathway becomes linear again, the flow becomes _____. turbulent, laminar _____ is a determinant of gas flow when flow is laminar. VISCOSITY flow = 1/viscosity laminar flow is inversely proportional to viscosity -- much more efficient in relation to delivery of liquids ______ is a determinant of gas flow when flow is turbulent. DENSITY Flow = 1/ sq rt of density turbulent flow is inversely proportional to density Viscosity is a measure of the resistance of a fluid to... deform under shear stress Turbulent flow has some advantages in delivery of _____. anesthesia gases Critical flow rate velocity at which a liquid or gas converts from laminar to turbulent flow, exists for any given fluid at a given tube diameter What principle am i? In a tube of varying diameter, a decr in diameter results in an incr in velocity bernoulli's theorem/continuity law lateral pressure exerted by a fluid passing through a tube of varying diameter is greatest at the widest area where speed is the least According to bernoulli, pressure is least at the ____ portion where _____ is the greatest. narrowest, speed Venturi effect (Extension of bernoulli) generation of subatmospheric pressure after a constriction allows a secong gas to be drawn inward and mixed w the first gas ex: atomizers, nebs, venturi mask, HFJV Variable orifice flowmeter - tapered tube w variable surface area - narrow at bottom, wide at top - thorpe tube - no change in pressure w incr in flow This is the temp at which vapor pressure of a liquid equals ambient pressure boiling point -- incr ambient pressure yields incr boiling point Which IA boils at room temp? desflurane! 22.8 C This is the temp at which, if a volume of air is cooled, moisture precipitates out -- can never be greater than air temp dew point This is the conversion of a volatile liquid to a gas/vapor, process by which particles escape the surface of a liquid, endothermic process, rate determined by temp of liquid vaporization Vaporization will eventually cease due to cooling unless.. heat is applied to the system Temperature and vaporization are ______ proportional. directly Efficiency of clinical vaporization can be increased by... increasing the surface area of the interface between the liquid and the gas Back pressure uneven delivery of vapor as a result of cahnges in vaporization due to pressure changes in the system during respiration (solution is baffles) This is the pressure exerted by vapor particles in equilibrium with a liquid. vapor pressure What does vapor pressure depend on? - polarity (incr polarity will decr VP) - mass (incr pass decr VP) - temp (incr temp incr VP) When does equilibration of vaporization occur? when as many molecules return to the liquid as escape from it -- atmosphere above the liquid said to be saturaed This is the amt of heat absorbed to convert a liquid to a gas at its boiling point. latent heat of vaporization What is the vapor pressure of water at room temp, body temp, and boiling point? 20 C - 17.5 mmHg 37 C - 47 mmHg 100 C - 760 mmHg What are the vapor pressures of halothane, isoflurane, desflurane, and sevoflurane? halo- 244 iso- 240 des- 669 sevo- 160 This is a form of energy that can be transferred from a hotter substance to a cooler substance -- in the form of kinetic energy which resides in the molecules of a substance. heat! heat energy flows from an area of _____ to an area of ____. high heat to low heat -- heat exchange! Thermal conductivity measureent of a substances ability to conduct/exchange heat copper/bronze vaporizer housings have incr thermal conductivity! This is the thermal state of a substance which determines whether it will give heat to another substance or receive heat from another substance -- avg kinetic energy of the molecules of a substance. temperature! STP 0 deg C, 273 K 760 mmHg 1 atm 22.4 L 6 x 10^23 molecules This is the scale in which there are 180 degrees between the freezing point of water (32) and the boiling point (212) fahrenheit This is the scale in which there are 100 degrees between th freezing point of H20 (0) and the boiling point (100). celsius This is the scale in which there are 100 degrees between the freezing point of h2o (273) and the boiling point (373) -- measured in degrees from absolute zero kelvin Triple point of water temp and pressure at which water vapor, liquid and solid phases are in equilibrium Temp conversions C = (F-32) x 0.56 F = (C x 1.8) +32 K = C + 273 calorie unit of heat measurement, amt of heat required to raise temp of 1 g of h20 1 deg C This is the quantity of heat which is liberated per gram molecule of a substance when it undergoes complete combustion. heat of combustion This is a change of state of matter requiring the input of heat energy, energy flows into the system ICE to WATER to VAPOR endothermic (vaporization) This is a change of state of matter requiring the output of heat energy, and energy flows out of the system VAPOR to WATER to ICE exothermic 4 types of heat loss conduction convection (30%) radiation (40%) evaporation This is heat transferred from one point to another by direct contact ex: pt in contact w a cold surface conduction This is heat loss where heat is transferred when a fluid flows over a solid while temp between the fluid and solid are different ex: air flowing over pts body convection This is the transfer of heat through divergence in all directions from a center ex: body heat moving toward other objects in a room radiation This is the transfer of heat through converting a liquid to a vapor, endothermic process ex: humidification of dry inspired gas evaporation This is the heat produced in the body by exposure to and absorption of waves that are not in themselves hot. ex: UV light, microwaves conversion heat