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67 Cards in this Set

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This refers to physical changes that occur over time, such as changes in height, or weight
Growth
This refers to the process of adapting to one's environment over time
Development
The influence of the environment on the individual is known as
Nurture
this refers to genetic endowment
Nature
A task that is midway between an individual need and societal demand is called a?
Developmental task
Thought patterns or behaviors that the ego employs in the face of threat to biological or psychological integrity
defense mechanisms
The ability to adjust to and interact with one's environment
Adaptation
The integration of new experiences with one's own system of knowledge
Assimilation
The change in one's system of knowledge that results from processing new information
Accommodation
This pain arises in the skin or the subcutaneous tissue
Cutaneous or superficial pain
Pain caused by the stimulation of deep internal pain receptors
Visceral Pain
Originating in the ligaments, tendosn, nerves, blood vessels, and bones.
Deep somatic pain
Pain that starts at the source but extends to other locations.
Radiating pain
Pain that occurs in an area that is distant from the original site
Referred pain
Pain that is perceived to originate from an area that has been surgically removed
Phantom pain
Pain that is believed to arise from the mind
Psychogenic pain
What are the two types of physical pain?
Nociceptive pain and Neuropathic pain
Pain that has a short duration and is generally rapid in onset
Acute pain
Pain that has lasted 6 month or longer and often interferes with daily activities.
Chronic pain
Pain that is both chronic and highly resistant to relief
Intractable pain
When nociceptors become activated by the perception of potentially damaging mechanical, thermal, and chemical stimuli
Transduction
Peripheral nerves carry the pain message to the dorsal horn of the spinal cord in a process known as
Transmission
This involves the recognition and definition of pain in the frontal cortex
Perception
The point at which the brain recognizes and defines a stimulus as pain is call the?
Pain Threshold
The duration or intensity of pain that a person is willing to endure is?
Pain tolerance
Extreme sensitivity to pain is called
hyperalgesia
Pain signals can be either facilitated or inhibited and the perception of pain changed through a process called?
Modulation
Neurons in the brain stem activate descending nerve fibers that conduct impulses back to the spinal cord
endogenous analgesia system
Somatic signals from nonpainful sources can inhibit signals of pain
Gate-control theory of pain modulation
Most common emotions associated with pain?
fear, guilt, anger, helplessness and loneliness
Beliefs about the value of expressing pain or minimizing it are often tied to ?
Culture
Increased systolic blood pressure, increased heart rate, increased respiratory rate, dilated blood vessels to the brain, increased alertness, dilated pupils and rapid speech are what kind of pain responses?
Sympathetic Responses (Acute pain)
Decreased systolic blood pressure, Decreased pulse rate, changeable breathing patterns, withdrawal constricted pupils, and Slow monotonous speech are what kind of pain responses?
Parasympathetic Responses (deep or prolonged pain)
The recommeded clinical approach to pain assessment is ABCDEE what does this stand for?
Ask, Believe, Choose pain control, Deliver intervention, Empower, and Enable
Repositioning, using pillows for support, Back rub or massage, Providing darkness and quite in the room for sleep, Straightening sheets, Mouth care, Soft music, and Using distraction are all?
Pain management tasks that may be delegated to UAP
A battery powered device about the size of a pager that is worn externally
TENS transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator
Combines a TENS unit with percutaneously placed needle probes to stimulate peripheral sensoury nerves
PENS Percutaneous electrical stimulation
Application of extremely fine needles to specific sites in the body
Acupuncture
Instead of needles, fingertips provide firm, gentle pressure over various pressure points
Acupressure
Decreases pain by providing cutaneous stimulation and relaxing the muscles
Massage
Involves stimulationg the skin in an area opposite to the painful site
Contralateral stimulation
Method of drawing the patients attenditon away from the pain and focusing on something other than the pain
Distraction
The person sits comfotably and tenses a group of muscles for 15 seconds then relaxes the muscle while breathing out
sequential muscle relaxation (SMR)
Using auditory and imaginary processes to affect emothins and help calm and relax
Guided imagery
Involves the induction of a deeply relaxed state
Hyposis
derived from the ancient practice of laying on of hands
Therapeutic touch
Especially helpful when used before a painful procedure because it lessens anxiety and serves as a form of distraction
humor
These are natural and synthetic compunds that relieve intense pain by binding to opiate recoptors and activating endogenous pain suppression in the cental nervous system
Opioid Analgesics
This leads to withdraw symptoms when the drug is removed abruptly
Physical dependence
Commonly called addiction, this occurs in less than 1% of patients even after long-term prescribed use of opioids for pain
Psychological dependence
These stimulate Mu receptors and are used for acute, chronic, and cancer pain
Mu agonists
Codeine, Morphine, hydromorphine, fentanyl, methadone and oxycodone are all examples of ?
Mu agonists
Medications that stimulate some opioid receptors but block others are?
Agonist-antagonists
Constipation, Nausea and vomiting, pruritus, respiratory depression and drowsiness are all expamples of?
Opioid side effects
The approximately equal analgesia that a variety of opioids will provide
Equianalgesia
A type of regional anesthesia
Nerve blocks
Injection of anesthetic into body tissues
local anesthesia
applying an agent that contains cocaine, lidocaine, or benzocaine direcly to the skin
Topical anesthesia
Cordotomy, Rhizotomy, Neurectomy, and Sympathectomy are all examples of?
Surgical interruption of Pain conduction pathways
This interrupts pain and temperature sensation blow the tract that is severed
Cordotomy
This interrupts the anterior or posterior nerve route that is located between the ganglion and the cord
Rhizotomy
Used to eliminate intractable localized pain
Neurectomy
Severs the paths to the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system
Sympathectomy
When does pain exsist?
When the patient says it does
Large diameter myelinated fibers that transmit impulses at 6 to 30 meters per second, these fibers transmit fast pain impulses from acute, focused mechanical and thermal stimuli
A-Delta fibers
Smaller unmyelinated fibers that transmit slow pain impulses
C fibers
Numerical, NIPS, FACES and FLACC are all examples of?
Pain Scales