Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

53 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the overall SB acronym?
What does HOW TO DE stand for?
Honest in Inquiry
Observation as a base
What questions, not why questions
Objective definitions and communication
What does science allow for in dealing with communication?
It allows a maximizing of communication.
When it terminology in science useful?
When it is precise and is defined by a unique set of operations or properties.
What does the labelling of behavior not substitute for?
An explanation.
What does the language of science try to get rid of?
What do we use when we move from common sense into scientific things?
Observations and experiments
Circular reasoning/circularity
The behavior is fallaciously explained in terms of the concept, and the concept is verified by the behavior.
What is describing a behavior not the same as?
Discovering the cause of the behavior.
The school psychologist who redundantly explains John's constant fighting with the statement, "John fights because he is hostile-aggressive," is really not saying more than the redundant [blank].
"John fights because he fights."
What must all terms be defined in?
In terms of steps that were carried out in observation or measurement of the term.
What are objective definitions based on?
The validity of the procedures employed in arriving at the findings.
Objectivity facilitates communication and points out meaningless questions by eliminating:
1. Obscurity
2. Ambiguity
3. Vagueness
vagueness of what a given term means, if it means anything at all;
multiple, or plural, meanings
The lack of preciseness in the use of terms.
How does an area of study acquire the status of being a science?
By the method of study it employs (i.e. the scientific method).
founded by P.W. Bridgman

A concept is synonymous with the corresponding set of operations that was used to measure the concept
Operational definitions ...
reduce vagueness in communications.
How could anxiety be operationally defined?
-the reading on a lie detector
-a set of questions answered by the subject
How could motivation be operationally defined?
-hours of food deprivation
-blood sugar level
-amount of behavior which a given stimulus produces
-verbal statements
T/F: By insisting that concepts contain an operational basis, it becomes easy to detect those assertions which cannot be answered by experimentation.
What is the specification of the procedure which establishes a scientific concept called?
What could be an operational definition of intelligence?
-score on a particular test
How do scientists build themselves "new roads"
With the "stones" of critical analysis they cast at themselves.
What is the principle of doubt or self criticism in science?
Requires that all statements claimed to be factual must be rejected until they are shown to be correct by experimental inquiry.
When are statements considered acceptable?
When they can be demonstrated to be correct by careful experimental inquiry.
Who imposes the editing?
A scientist imposes this self-editing on himself/herself
What should you be skeptical of?
How is empiricism in science shown?
In the degree to which it concentrates on behavior and avoids myths such as ego and id.
What is empiricism wary of?
Terms such as attitude, self-actualization, and IQ (until they are defined in precise behavioral variables)
What is the mode of empiricism?
"Let's look and see."
What is the origin of the word reflex?
Nerves were thought to be hollow tubes through which "animal spirits were reflected"
What is the basic attitude of empiricism?
One that must be affirmed regardless of our technical skill (i.e. we must always endeavor to look and see)
Where does the strange air of confidence about scientists come from?
The confidence that comes from having a viable means to evaluating a particular situation.
What is the determinist answer to the question "Why do you grow a beard?"
It was a lawful relationship; when I stopped shaving, the beard grew.
What is a basic assumption in all science?
That natural phenomena are determined;

every event in the universe has a cause.
What enables us to control the occurrence of future events?
The knowledge of relationships between events and their causes.
What should determinism not be identified with?
Pre-scientific doctrine of Calvinism, predeterminism, or fatalism.
Can behavior be changed?
Yes, by finding the lawful relationship that controls the behavior.
The term determinism, as used by behavior scientists, refers to ...
the notion that behavior is lawful.
What would happen if there was no lawfulness in behavior?
You would not be able to change behavior.
What have humans not been good at?
At using science in reference to studying their own behavior.
Labeling of behavior does not substitute for ...
What does the O stand for in the mnemonic?
Objective definitions and communication
In science, experimenters try to get rid of what?
When behavior is fallaciously explained in terms of a concept what happens?
The concept is verified by the behavior.
Objective definitions are based on ...
the validity of the procedure.
What are the three things objectivity tries to eliminate?
What does the D stand for in the mnemonic?
You can only trust a phenomenon if ...
it can be demonstrated by a careful experiment.
What does the E stand for in the mnemonic?
The basic attitude of empiricism is ...
one that must be affirmed, regardless of technical skill