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84 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What does the R in BEFORE stand for?
Replication, a must: Verifiable and Unverifiable
What three issues does the Replication SB discuss?
-Verifiable and unverifiable positions
-Public and private evidence
-Direct and indirect evidence
What is the soundest strategy we have today to approach the study of a new set of events?
Deal with the more simple occurrences first
How have basic principles been established?
In lab procedures by manipulating one condition (IV) and observing its effect upon some other condition (DV)
How are complications in experiments avoided?
By insuring that other conditions (Extraneous variables) which could act as independent variables do not influence the outcome.
What can be considered after basic principles have been established by means of lab experimentation?
More complex sets of interacting variables.
What can happen after the basic principles have been verified in more complex situations?
The principles and procedures can be applied to the solution of practical real life problems.
What has experimental psychology turned to in order to separate the relationships of complex environmental variables acting on complex behaviors?
Laboratory simplification;

the study of simpler organisms, simpler situations, and simpler behaviors
What are the several types of verification mentioned by Braithwaite?
-Direct verification
-Support from comparative studies
-basic learning principles verify other behaviors of humans
-Principles are verified under new conditions
What do we call a statement if it cannot be confirmed or accepted?
What is the aim of science, above all else?
To discover new and useful information in the form of verifiable data
Verifiable in practice
We have the means to verify a statement
Verifiable in principle
We may someday have the means, but we do not have them yet
What if we will never have the means?
It is unverifiable
What does science rely on?
Publicly verifiable observation.
What evidence if of little value?
That which is private to an individual or unverifiable.
When are arguments useful?
1) When all inference and speculation are eliminated

2) When agreement exists among observers of an event concerning facts
When is an assertion publicly verifiable?
When it can be verified by more than one person.
What is evidence which might be obtained equally well by any of a number of observers, or evidence whith two or more observers can record at the same time is called ...
public or objective
Indirectly verifiable
Can be indirectly observed by means of their effects;

e.g. an electron
Heart rate and papillary dilation are [blank] measures of behavior
An indirect measure of behavior is one that ...
describes the resulting effect from the behavior.
What does the E in BEFORE stand for?
Evaluation techniques based on measurement
a process of assigning symbols to varying magnitudes of given properties according to a set of rules;

numerical description
What is the tool of measurement process used for?
to observe the amount of something
What is the acronym for remembering simple measures of responses?
What does A RED FLAP stand for?
-D-uration of a response
-F-requency of a response
-L-atency of a response
-P-ercentage of correct responses / percentage of time that the appropriate response occurs
measured in terms of distance from a given point
the amount of something per unite of time
the fewer errors, the more proficient at a task
Duration of a response
the time between the beginning of a response and its termination

(e.g. person's proficiency at parking is determined by how long it takes them to do it)
Frequency of a response
how often a response occurs

(e.g. more frequent the bar press, the better the learning)
Latency of a response
the time between the onset of the stimulus and the subject's initation of the response

(i.e. reaction time)
amount of or force of the response

(e.g. amount of salivation; force of lever press)
Percentage of correct responses or percentage of time correct response occurs
Can be easily used.

(e.g. percentage of time spent sucking thumb)
What are the additional five measures of responses? (SPRTT)
1) Saving Score
2) Percentage and Rate compared
3) Rating scales
4) Trials to Criterion
5) Trials to extinction or termination of behavior
Saving score
how many trials does one save in relearning a task by recall, reconstruction, reproduction, or recognition?
Percentage and Rate compared
in many cases only one response may follow a stimulus, but in others many responses occur
Rating scales
rating the quality of a given response
Trials to criterion
how many trials it takes to produce a perfect performance
Trials to extinction or termination of behavior after stopping the procedure
How many trials it takes to get rid of a behavior
During learning, the amplitude of a response should ...
What exist when rate is used as a response measure?
What is the "southeast" mark used to indicate?
The "hatch" or "pip" is often used to indicate that a response has been reinforced (rewarded)
The [blank] of the curve at any point is a valid indicator of the rate of responding.
How can you determine the number of responses between two point on a record when the steps are small?
By using a scale
When a cumulative curve is used to record behavior, the slope indicates [blank].
In a cumulative record, the number of responses can be determined by the distance traversed by the pen in a [blank] direction.
In a cumulative record, time is indicated by the distance traversed by the pen in a [blank] direction.
What does the A stand for in SB?
Amorality Principle in Science
Amorality principle
states that science does not judge or evaluate the moral values and implications of the events observed
What do scientists attempt to be in inquiry?
What does the nature of inquiry stress?
A professional standard
What must the psychologist do when observing the behavior of people?
Withhold making value judgements
What approach holds the key to the future?
Scientific, experimental approach
What is science a search for?
What is
How can guiding be most effective?
Through the use of conditioning techniques
What can we do as we understand and control behavior?
Understand and control the misuse of science, because the misuse of science is behavior
What does the S stand for in SCIENCE?
System important
What did Titchener say was the best way to begin a study when there are differences of opinion?
To master one system thoroughly
What did Bacon say about truth?
It emerges more quickly from error than from confusion.
What is important for you to do, both practically and theoretically?
To organize your knowledge.
What are the benefits from acquiring a systematic orientation?
-Learn to think psychologically about everyday affairs
-approach to new problems will be more direct and incisive
-estimates of the significance of new findings should be more telling
-be less disturbed by claims of quacks and less blinded by popular fancy
What should not fear about the study of a system of behavior?
That it will either restrict your movement or narrow your vision;

the opposite is true.
According to Keller, a thorough learning of one system of psychology will:
1) Increase the quality of productive activity

2)Increase the quantity of productive activity

3) Open up more exciting realms

4) Give a perspective no other approach can offer
What does Titchener assert is the best way to begin a new study?
To master one system thoroughly.
What does the C in SCIENCE stand for?
Comparative studies valued
What is the acronym for why we should use lower organisms in research?
What does GO CAT stand for?
-O-wn sake

-C-ontrolled history
-T-aboo Areas
What can be derived from animal research?
principles which can be applied to human behavior
Own Sake
Animal behavior is a valid subject for study in its own right

can be used to predict and control animal behavior
Controlled histories
-the environment animals live in is more easily controlled (variables can be help constant, negating the effect of extraneous variables)

-inheritance can be studied through many generations in species with rapid reproduction rates
Supply of subjects is plentiful and cost is low;

organism is available for continuous observations
taboo exists against doing certain kinds of research with humans
Some people feel that using animals for behavioral research with an intent to generalize to humans detracts from human [blank], but one might contend the only way an individual can become free and have dignity is to learn the [blank] of his/her behavior

What are four reasons for experimenting with lower animals?
1) Their lives are more easily controlled

2) The results of findings can be applied to understanding aspects of human behavior

3) Inheritance can be studied through several generations

4) The effects of drugs, etc can be studied; results might prove helpful in treating human disease
Compariative studies have what 3 advantages?
1) Continuous observations are possible

2) Techniques for human research can be developed

3) The animal situation lends itself to control
What must a science contend to do before it can move on?
Wait to solve difficult problems until it has solved some of the simpler questions.
What does I in SCIENCE stand for?
Irrelevant questions in science
What is highly valued in science?
Remaining without an answer until an adequate answer is found.
What hinders advancement?
Purely speculative answers
What does science have high regard for?
What 2 things does science do rather than accept an inadequate answer?
-Goes without one
-Experiments to find an adequate one
What must a question be in terms of?
Observable components