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34 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the two categories of experiments the reading talks about?
-Group experiments
-Individual experiments
To see what effect a certain variable has on another ...
control of all relevant variables is necessary.
What does control of variables permit?
Keeping irrelevant variables from influencing the data being studied.
What is the essence of the experimental method?
The control of conditions of observation.
What does greater precision of the experimental observation require?
What does the experimental method attempt to do?
Control extraneous conditions in observation
What is the attempt to hold some variables constant while allowing others to vary called?
What does good psychological experimentation involve?
Careful design that includes controls.
Why is the experimental method preferable to other research methods in psychology?
-It can be used to study problems
-It affords greater precision and control
What are important characteristics of the experimental method?
-Control and systematic manipulation of the conditions
What is one of the major difficulties of research in natural settings?
Other variables may obscure the effect of the independent variables.
In psychology, the distinction between the experimental method and other methods lies in what?
The control of variables
What happens when one has poor control of the variables that control a person's behavior?
S/he is ineffective in controlling the person.
What are the two groups of subjects called in a group experiment?
-Experimental group
-Control group
Experimental group
Presented the independent variable
Control group
Subjected to the same conditions as the experimental group, but not presented with the independent variable
What can the experimental group and the control group be compared to determine?
The effects of the independent variable
Why is a control group necessary?
In order to have a base from which to judge.
If the hypothesis is that brand Y toothpaste can reduce the incidence of cavities and if other variables are methods of brushing and diets, what variables should you keep constant in your group?
Brushing and diet
In psychology, the distinction between the experimental method and other methods lies chiefly in the degree to which the variables are ...
Individual organism research
Approach does not use large groups of subjects in statistical analysis.
What does Sidman/individual organism research contend about statistics with large numbers of subjects?
-statistics have been used to tease effects from data
-statistics have been used to cover up lack of experimental controls
What do you have to do to show the procedure you have introduced has an effect?
You must show that the variable you manipulated influences the rate or responding.
-aka operant level
-control condition
How is individual organism research recorded?
By cumulative record
Cumulative record
A graph in which events (usually responses)are cumulated and plotted as a function of time.
the amount of something per unit of time
Bottom of sheet
Independent variable
X axis
Ordinate (is its technical name)
Y axis
Dependent variale
Side of paper
Why is the condition reversed in phase 3?
In order to show that time itself could not have caused what is taking place.
Why are group methods frequently not useful for clinical practice?
Because in clinical work you are treating a patient, not all patients.
What are the two major approaches to scientific investigation?
-Statistical techniques
-Control techniques
Predictive approach in which scientist attempts to determine the interaction of variables by using statistical techniques, such as analysis of variance
Uses two groups and controls all variables except for the independent variable.