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28 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
1.1 The Structure of Matter

Atom
The smallest particle of an element that retains the chemical properties of that element.
1.1 The Structure of Matter

Element
A substance that can't be broken down or separated into simple substances through a chemical reaction.
1.1 The Structure of Matter

Protons
Positively charged and situated at the center of the atom.
1.1 The Structure of Matter

Nucleus
The center of the atom.
1.1 The Structure of Matter

Neutron
Neutrally charged at situated at the center of the atom.
1.1 The Structure of Matter

Electrons
Negatively charged and situated outside the nucleus.
1.1 The Structure of Matter

Mass Number (Z)
The sum of the number of protons and neutrons an atom contains.
1.1 The Structure of Matter

Atomic Weight
The average atomic mass of an element based on its different isotopes.
1.1 The Structure of Matter

Atomic Mass Unit
Unit: amu
One atomic mass unit is equal to 1.66054 x 10-24 g.
1.1 The Structure of Matter

Isotopes
Atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons.
1.1 The Structure of Matter

Atomic Number (A)
The number of protons the atom contains.
1.2 The Structure of Matter

Radioactivity
The spontaneous disintegration of an unstable atomic nucleus and the subsequent emission of radiation.
1.2 The Structure of Matter

Alpha Decay
When the nucleus emits an alpha particle.
1.2 The Structure of Matter

Beta Decay
When the nucleus emits a beta particle.
1.2 The Structure of Matter

Gamma Decay
The emission of pure electromagnetic energy, no particles are emitted.
1.2 The Structure of Matter

Positron Emmision
When atoms become more stable by emitting a positron.
1.2 The Structure of Matter

Positron
A particle with the same size and mass as an electron but with a positive charge.
1.2 The Structure of Matter

Radioactive Series
When the emission of an alpha or beta particle creates another radioactive species and creates a wave.
1.2 The Structure of Matter

Law of Conservation of Matter
Mass is neither created nor destroyed
1.2 The Structure of Matter

Fusion
The reaction when two light nuclei are combined to form a heavier, more stable nucleus.
1.2 The Structure of Matter

Fission
When a heavy nucleus is split into two nuclei with smaller mass numbers.
1.3 The Structure of Matter

Half-life
The time it takes for one-half of a sample of isotope to decay.
1.3 The Structure of Matter

Quanta
A fixed amount that energy is released and absorbed by an atom in.
1.3 The Structure of Matter

Photons
Discrete energy packets of radiant energy that is also quantized.
1.3 The Structure of Matter

Ground State
Lowest energy state available for an electron.
1.3 The Structure of Matter

Excited States
All higher-energy states.
1.3 The Structure of Matter

Uncertainty Principle
At any one time, it is impossible to calculate the momentum and the location of an electron in an atom.
1.3 The Structure of Matter

Quantum Numbers
Numbers used to describe the location of electrons.