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200 Cards in this Set

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Corn ear worm...?
predisposes corn to ear rot.
What mycotoxins are produced?
fumonisms, B1&B2
horses becoming ill led to the discovery of
Fumonisms
what was the cause of getting sick
they got brain disease
what italian food contained fumonisms?
polenta, high levels of it were consumed in Italy
Eventually Fumonisms lead to?
correlates with higher indigance of esophageal cancer
Maximum level of fumonisms in food?
less than 4ppm in humans
1ppm in horses
5ppm in chickens
how are fumonisin managed in corn
biological pesticide..insecticides to prevent corn ear worm damage
Bt(bachillus thruginiesis)
what does the Bt bacteria have that is important?
it has a protein which kills insects
how is this bacteria used in plants?
the pesticide which contains this bacteria is sprayed on the crop
what does the Bt gene code for?
it codes for a toxin, that kills the insect. leads to the 90% reduction of fumonism
Is Bt-corn considered a pesticide?
yes, it must be approved by the FDA
is this corn specific to any insects
yes, no risk for non target insects
what are the effects of this corn on humans?
it is degraded by stomach enzymes=dietrty protein
which is non toxic and non allergenic
what are the benifits of Bt corn?
1. higher yields
2. less mycotoxins in corn
3. reduced pesticide use
what potential problems do Bt corn present?
selection for Bt resistant insect plants
what causes beer gushing?
contaminated barely
what determines risk of pesticides and mycotoxins?
toxicity and exporsure
what posses a greater risk, fungicides or aflotoxin B1
aflotoxin B1, by 300% LD
what are barriers on the human body that prevents, fungal infections?
1. skin-poor substrate for growth(dry non nutritive) and the dead cells shed
2.body temperate 37 C is too high for most fungi
3 Immune system
what are characterisitics of fungi that cause disease?
1. growth below 37 C
2. ability to degrade keratin
3. capable of yeast like growth
(thermally dimorphic), switch at 37 C
where is keratin on the human body?
1.hair
2.nail
3.skin
Are anitbiotics useful in treating fungal infections?
no, antibiotics are anti-bacterial,
there are very few theraputic uses options for fungal diseases
why are fungal infections hard to treat?
1. fungal cells are similar to human cells(eukayotic)
so it is diffiecult to find drugs that do not also affect humans

2. small market for antifungal drugs, but its growing
what is one reason why fungal infections are becoming more common today?
1. people have compromised immune systems because of the HIV
What factors into a depressed immune system?
(5 factors)
1.cancer patients
2.Cimothearpy
3.Radiation treatment
4.Organ transplant
5.Diabetes
what is the most common problem caused by fungi?
Allergies
where can you find the most spores?
outside, spores come from the out-door environment
and air borne dust that comes into Florida from Africa
where do fungi end up in the human body?
they are non pathogenic and non-toxic
lungs, throat, eyes
what are the uses of cyclosporins?
cyclosporins are used to supress the immune system durig a transplant surgery
Toxins in spores cause?
sore throat and fatigue
What are good substrates for fungi?
paper on wallboard which is rich in cellulose, and has moisture
treatment of fungi growing in homes?
fix leaks, remove colonized materials, and improve air circulation
guys house get infected by fungi?
the insurance company burns it down builds him a new house to avio liability problems
what opportunities do toxic molds provide?
porvide opportunity for businesses offering testing services
Corn ear worm...?
predisposes corn to ear rot.
What mycotoxins are produced?
fumonisms, B1&B2
horses becoming ill led to the discovery of
Fumonisms
what was the cause of getting sick
they got brain disease
what italian food contained fumonisms?
polenta, high levels of it were consumed in Italy
Fungi affect humans through?
1. toxic mold
2.allergies(no toxins, no infections
3.Pathogens
4.toxins in spores
what are Dermatophytes?
superficial infections which affec the nails, hair, skin
they are causes by Trichophyton
Nail infections
50 % of nail problems
35 million americans
growth towards the root, starts at the tip
how are nail infections treated?
1. remove all parts of the nail
2.topical fungicide
3. oral medication
results of using topical fungicide?
29-36% cure rate after 48 weeks
what is the best treatment for fungal infections?
oral medication is the most effective
lamisil
70% cure rate, 12 weeks
What does Lamasil do?,
are there any side effects?
it disrupts cell membranes specific to fungi

side effects are minor and transistant
What is another developing treatment for nail fungasl infections?
Laser treatment,
shows promise
does not damage skin or cause side effects
what is another fungal infection?
Hair Shaft infection
what are the results of the hair shaft infection?
hair becomes brittle and falls out
nodule spores in the shaft
Symptoms of the hair shaft infection?
infections may remain symptomless for for years
treatment of hair shaft infections?
1. haircut
2.topical fungicides
infection of the scalp?
tania captis
Infection of the face?
tanea barberae
What is the most common fungal infection?
athletes foot affects 70% of all people during there lifetime
where does the ring worm happen?
on the neck
wherre on the human body is a fungal infection likely to occur?
where skin remains the most moist
occupational hazard
in what region are fungal infections most common?
tropic regions
what fungal infection goes untreated many times?
Trichophyton spp
what part of the eye do fungal infections infect?
the cornea
what are the risk factors of eye infections?
1.trauma and soil
2. eye surgery
3. contact lenses
what fungi is the cuase of eye infetions?
fusarium solani
where is fusarium solani most common
common is soil and air
is an opportunistic
this fungi is also the cause of fruit rot in zucchini
what is another cause of eye infection?
depressed immune system
what is the name of a yeast infection of the eye?
Canadiasis
Canadiasis, has what type of relationship with humans?
commensalism- it gains a benefit without damage
it is dimorphic
Candida albicans is a common inhibitant of ?
skin
mucous membranes
Urogenital tract
Gastrointestinal tract
candida albicans is limited by?
hose immune system
and cooccuring bacteria
what type of growth inhibits yeast?
bacterial growth
what do antibiotics do to bacteria
they suppress bacterial and promote yeast infections
what is thrush?
and what bacteria is it causes by?
infection of the oral cavity
Candida albicans
thrush is most common in?
premature infants and the elderly- because they have a poorly functioning immune system
what are the risk factors of genital infecitons
1. diabetes
2.pregnancy
3.antibiotic thearpy
you can get heart infections from?
IV drugs use
and contaminated needles
appearance of fungi?
furry
appearane of bacteria?
slimmy
how many people respond to antifungal treatment
15% respond to antifungal treatment
high gut levels of albicans are associated with
beahavior problems
treatment of albicans
nystatin binds to ergostrol
what is ergestrol required for?
fungal membrane cells
Fluconazole?
inhibits cell ergosterol biosynthesis

and prevents synthesis
Pneumocytis Jiroveci are, and cause?
are single celled and cause pneumonia=PCP, rare until the 1960s
who did PCP affect and where
PCP affected gay men and was fatal
PCP led to which discovery?
AIDS, it was the defining diagnosis of 63% of AIDS patients in 1987
PCP major cause of...
preventable mortality in AIDS patients, without treatment 85% would develop the disease
what was thought to be the source of PCP spores?
pigeon dung and the single cells are inhaled
does person to person contact occur?
yes, and no non human reservior of innoculation has not been identified
Do pigeons get infected with PCP
yes, but that strain does not affect people
how do humans get PCP?
single cells are inhaled then contained in the immune system(lungs) and spread via the blood stream
what is PCP treated with
trimethoprim +
sulfamethoxazole-- during respiratory phase
Ohio valley disease resides in?
soil-bird bat dung and produces air borne spores infects lungs
O valley disease is called ?
histoplasma capsulatum
mycelial growth in soil is ...?
thermally dimogrophic
movement in the..?
blood stream, growth is like that of yeast.
how many people infected?
4o million and 95% never develop symptoms
Histoplasma was mistaken for ? and treated with
TB and treated with antibiotics
Histoplasma is..
a severe respiratory infection
movement through blood
disseminated phase is usually fatal
HP colonizes?
internal organs, liver, etc
valley fever
caused by Coccidioidomycosis in the san joaquin valley(arid areas), very few develop symptoms and is fatal in rare cases
Mucor?
mold
protease?
source of enzyme for making cheese, it breaks down proteins
where can mucor be found?
common in soil and plant debris, decomposed of plants
mucor is the cause of what in harvest?
cause of post harvest loses, decomposer of plants, spores are common in the air
mucor--> immune system
competent,superfical, skin , nails
fungal hypae in tissue sample have no?
cross walls
treatment of mucor mycosis?
1. surgery
2.aggressive antifungal
problems with treatment of mucor mycosis
drug delivery is a problem and there is hypal growth through tissue
otzi was studies by 40 research teams... was found?
a pouch was found that contained fungal fruiting bodies, piptoporus betulins(wood rotting fungus)
wood rotting fungus grows on..?
birch trees
Piptoporus betilinus may have been used as?
vermifuge-to treat worms, otzi had worms
Fomes fomentarius(wood rotter)
may have been useful as:
1. transport fire
2. stypic-stop bleeding
3. diuretic and laxative
health benefits attributed to CORDYCEPS SINENSIS?
1. strength and stamina
2.boost immune system
3.improve kidney and liver function
4.prolong life
golden age of microbiology?
germ theory of disease
antibiotic discovery led to..?
use in medicine
1928 alexander feleming studied
bacteria in england, made different cultures, went on vaction and found fungal colonies
flemmings hypothesis?
fungal growth inhibits bacteria
zone of inhibition?
where bacteria does not grow
effective treatment of eye infection?
no effective treatment, mold juice was applied to the eye and the eye infection was cured in 1930
problems with penicillin
1.unstable in acid-degraded in stomach
2.80% removed in kidneys in 3-4 hours
3. too expensive
4. recycled from urine
100liters= 1dosage one person
effectiviness was tested on..
8 mice, 4 treated with Penicillin and 4 untreated which died
no enough money was available in england so florey
travelled to the US and US took over development of penicillin
mucor is the cause of what in harvest?
cause of post harvest loses, decomposer of plants, spores are common in the air
mucor--> immune system
competent,superfical, skin , nails
fungal hypae in tissue sample have no?
cross walls
treatment of mucor mycosis?
1. surgery
2.aggressive antifungal
problems with treatment of mucor mycosis
drug delivery is a problem and there is hypal growth through tissue
otzi was studies by 40 research teams... was found?
a pouch was found that contained fungal fruiting bodies, piptoporus betulins(wood rotting fungus)
wood rotting fungus grows on..?
birch trees
Piptoporus betilinus may have been used as?
vermifuge-to treat worms, otzi had worms
Fomes fomentarius(wood rotter)
may have been useful as:
1. transport fire
2. stypic-stop bleeding
3. diuretic and laxative
health benefits attributed to CORDYCEPS SINENSIS?
1. strength and stamina
2.boost immune system
3.improve kidney and liver function
4.prolong life
mucor is the cause of what in harvest?
cause of post harvest loses, decomposer of plants, spores are common in the air
mucor--> immune system
competent,superfical, skin , nails
fungal hypae in tissue sample have no?
cross walls
treatment of mucor mycosis?
1. surgery
2.aggressive antifungal
problems with treatment of mucor mycosis
drug delivery is a problem and there is hypal growth through tissue
otzi was studies by 40 research teams... was found?
a pouch was found that contained fungal fruiting bodies, piptoporus betulins(wood rotting fungus)
wood rotting fungus grows on..?
birch trees
Piptoporus betilinus may have been used as?
vermifuge-to treat worms, otzi had worms
Fomes fomentarius(wood rotter)
may have been useful as:
1. transport fire
2. stypic-stop bleeding
3. diuretic and laxative
health benefits attributed to CORDYCEPS SINENSIS?
1. strength and stamina
2.boost immune system
3.improve kidney and liver function
4.prolong life
Health benefits attributed
to Cordyceps sinensis?
1. strength and stamina
2. improved liver and kidney function
3.prolong life
4. aphrodisiac
golden age of microbiolgy
germ theory of disease
antibiotic discovery led to..
use in medicine
alexander flemming studied bacterial growht
went on vacation came back to find contaminated plates
flemmings hypothesis..
fungal growth inhibits bacterial growth
inhibition zone?
where bacteria does not grow around a fungal colony
Penicillium chrysogenum
spores, spore forming cells
treatment and cure of bacterial eye infection
applied mold juice to eye and it was cured 1930
problems with penicillin
1.expensive 100L= 1 dosage
2.unstable in acid degraded in the stomach
3. recycled from urine
4. removed by kidenys in 3-4 hours
penicillin was tested on 8 mice
for tht were treated with pencillin were cured, and other 4 died
further study required money so florey travelled to the US..
USA took over the development of pencillin
USDA increased the production of pencillin
world war 2 project, 2nd largest project after the Manhattan Project
many different strains were produced
top grossing was in Illinois,
radiation was also used to produce more strains-- which was not benifical. modifying strain led to more pencillin
improve culture condition..?
nutrient source: corn steep liquor, growth on the surface of a liquid(aeration)
chemical modifications of penicillin..?
Penicillin G- unstable in acid
Intravenous- medical suprivision
penicillin V-acid stable
acid stable penicillin
taken as pills
Penicillin treated..
septicimia-blood poisoning
strep throat/scarelt fever
pneumonia
syphillis
deaths caused by funal infections dropped by 95%
Antibiotic resistance was the consquence of
extensive use in human medicine and natural selection for resistant strains
inappropriate use of antibiotics resulted from
using it for a viral infection-cold or flu prior to diagnosis
failure to complete treatment
penicillin inhibits
cell wall synthesis
antibiotic resistance bacteria..
enzyme(Penicillinase)degrades penicillin
Penicillinase does what to penicillin
deactivates peniciilin
what is the inhibitor of Penicillinase?
clavonic acid and amoxocillan combo = augumintin
staphylococcus aureus did what
drug resistant killed 19,000, more people than HIV/HIV
grows on living organic matter
how much CO2 do fungi produce each year
85 billion tons
fungi decompose..?
wood, only fungi fully decompose wood
why is wood so slow to degrade
because it is low in simple sugars, the sugars are combined into polymers
wood is also 40-50% cellulose
20-35% lignin makes it durable and protects cellulose
many fungi and bacteria degrade cellulose, but only fungi do fully
why is wood slow to degrade?
1. low in simple sugars
2.cellulose and lignin
3.low in nitrogen
(required for proteins)
oyster mushrooms eat nematodes for..
source of nitrogen
nematodes eat bacteria for
nitrogen fixation(atmospheric nitrogen)
inhibatory compounds prevent
the decomposition of wood
redwoods+cedar are resistant
to decay
recycled wood and plastic
are immune to plastic in service for ten years
wood decay fungi eliminate
heartwood(leaves it hallow)
wood decay continues after
the death of the tree
cellulose+lignin turns into
CO2 and hummus, stable for centuries and contributes to soil fertility
Blue stain in pine
wood Ophiostoma spp.
caused
by
non-wood rotting fungi,
Cannot be sold
for lumber
making of paper out of trees
have to bleech to remove lignin, blue stain requires more beleech($$$)
clorinated waste products leads
to water pollutiom
what does brown(chicken of the woods) rot decay?
only cellulose is degraded no liginin,
CO2 produced
what does white rot(oyster mushroom) decay?
Cellulose and lignin
how is wood rot prevented?
water saturation excludes oxygen
water storage
what does kiln drying of luber do?
too dry for fungal growth
preventing wood rot in structures?
from fungi and termites
1. no contact with soil
2. barrier between wood and soil
3.rot resistant wood(concrete foundation)
4. redwood
pressure treated wood
copper, banned for residental use after 2003
TIMBER SIL,, sodium silicate
forms a glass like matrix within the wood
Symbiosis
two species in a close
relationship
Mutualism
both species benefit
Commensalism
one species benefits, the
other species is not affected
Parasitism
one species benefits, the other
species suffers
the leafcutter two genera
Atta and Acromyrmex
39 species
• Central, North
and South
America
how do leaf cutter ants cut the leaves
Use powerful
jaws to cut
bits of leaf
some agricultural pest can
defoliate an entire citrus tree in less than 24 hours
how do the ants use the leaves
they use them to create compost, the compost is used to cultivate fungi, fungiculture
how do ants use cultivated fungi
they eat them
how do ants create compost
They create the compost with a mix of leaf
pulp, saliva and feces
why do ants clean the leaves
to prevent contaminations
what do ants add to the mix
fungi