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203 Cards in this Set

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dorsal boundary of of pelvic cavity
sacrum and 1st few caudal vertebrae
lateral boundary of pelvic cavity
ilium and coccygeus
levator ani and middle gluteal mm.
cranial border of pelvic cavity
pelvic inlet
caudal border of pelvic cavity
pelvic outlet
pelvic cavity in meales/females contains
rectum and urethra
in females only the pelvic cavity contains
vagina and part of vestibule
in males only the pelvic cavity contains
prostrate
pelvic cavity is lined by..
transversalis fascia and peritoneum
caudal peritoneal reflection located lateral to the mesorectum
pararectal fossa
caudal peritoneal reflection in the female, located b/w the rectum and the cranial portion of the vagina
rectogenital pouch
caudal peritoneal reflection in the male, located b/w the rectum and the genital fold (containing ductus deferens)
rectogenital pouch
caudal peritoneal reflection in the female, located b/w the neck of the urinary bladder and the cranial portion of the vagina
in male, located b/w the prostate and genital fold
vesicogenital pouch
caudal peritoneal reflection located in the female, b/w the neck of the urinary bladder and the ventral body wall and pubis
in the male, located b/w the prostate and the ventral body wall and pubis
pubovesical pouch
what is the ventral most caudal peritoneal reflection
pubovesical pouch
describe location of urinary, digestive, and repro. tracts in respect to e/o
digestive-most dorsal
repro.-medial
urinary-most ventral
what is the space b/w the anus and scrotum (region of the pelvic outlet)
perineos/perinuem
what is the body wall that encloses the terminal parts of the digestive and urogenital tracts
perineum
surface dorsal boundary of perineum
tail/anus
surface ventral boundary of perineum
dorsal aspect of vulva or scotum
lateral surface boundary of perineum
ischiatic tuberosity
deep dorsal boundary of perineum
3rd caudal vertebrae
deep lateral boundary of perineum
sacrotuberous ligament
deep ventral boundary of perinuem
ischial arch
hints in sexing cats
males-increased distance b/w anus and preputial opening (anogenital distance)
lateral surface boundary of perineum
ischiatic tuberosity
deep dorsal boundary of perineum
3rd caudal vertebrae
deep lateral boundary of perineum
sacrotuberous ligament
deep ventral boundary of perinuem
ischial arch
hints in sexing cats
males-increased distance b/w anus and preputial opening (anogenital distance)
in males- vulvar opening is more of a slit
anal and genital openings are more colon shaped in.....kittens
males
anal and genital openings are more semi-colon shaped in....kittens
females
what is located b/w the anus and the ischiatic tuberosity and can be fat-filled in obese dogs?
ischiorectal fossa
what is the pelvic diaphragm made of?
levator ani
coccygeus muscles
functions of the pelvic diaphragm
retain pelvic viscera in place
depress the tail
aid in expelling pelvic contents
rectum, vagina, and urethra locations in respect to e/o
rectum-most dorsal
vagina-medial
urethra-most ventral
what muscle courses from the shaft of the ilium, pubis, and pelvic floor to Ca3-7?
levator ani
function of levator ani?
fixes the position of the anus during defecation
what muscle courses from the ischial spine to Ca2-4/Ca5
coccygeus m.
what muscle is located lateral to levator ani?
coccygeus m.
4 nerves of the pelvic viscera
hypogastric n.
pelvic n.
pelvic plexus
pudendal n.
what contains postganglionic sympathetic fibers from the caudal mesenteric ganglion?
hypogastric nn.
what is formed by the preganglionic parasympathetic axons from ventral brs. S1, S2 and S3 and visceral afferent fibers
pelvic n.
what innervates the descending colon, rectum, and urogenital organs
pelvic n.
what courses with prostatic/vaginal a.?
pelvic n.
what contains sympathetic fibers from the hypogastric n., parasympathetic fibers from the pelvic n., and visceral afferent fibers
pelvic plexus
what provides sensory to the rectum, internal and external repro. organs, perineal skin

motor to the perineal mm.
pudendal n.
pudendal n. originates from...
ventral brs of S1, S2, S3
branches of pudendal n.
superficial perineal
deep perineal
caudal rectal

continues as dorsal n. of the penis/clitoris
what specifically provides sensory from perineum?
superficial perineal br.
what provides sensory from the mucosa of anal canal? and motor to muscles of the penis or the vestibule and vulva?
deep perineal n.
what provides sensory from the rectum, anus, perianal skin?
motor to external anal sphincter
caudal rectal nn.
in the removal of anal glands what should you preserve?
external anal sphincter
caudal rectal n.
what are the 3 terminal brs. of aorta
external iliac a.
internal iliac a.
median sacral a.
where does the external iliac go?
pelvic limb
where does the internal iliac a. go?
pelvic cavity
pelvic limb
what does the median sacral a. become?
median caudal a.
what does the median caudal a. supply?
caudal vertebrae
brs. of internal iliac a.
umbilical a.
caudal gluteal a.
internal pudendal a.
in the fetus, where does the umbilical a. go?
through the umbilicus to carry relatively unoxygenated blood to the placenta for oxygenation
what brs. of the umbilical a. supply the bladder?
cranial vesical aa.
what are the remnant of the umbilical aa. called?
round ligament of the bladder
what is the round ligament of the bladder located?
lateral ligaments of the bladder
what supplies blood to the muscles outside the pelvis and the caudal thigh region?
caudal gluteal a.
what does the internal pudendal a. supple?
pelvic viscera
what is the main a. to pelvic viscera in female?
vaginal a.
what is the vaginal a. a br. of?
internal pudendal a.
what is the br. of the vaginal a. that supplies the uterus?
uterine a.
the caudal vesical a. brs. are...
urethral
ureteral
main brs off of internal pudendal a.?
vaginal a.
ventral perineal a.
artery of the clitoris
br. off of the ventral perineal a.
caudal rectal a.
br. off of the artery of the clitoris
artery of the bulb
caudal rectal a. courses with?
caudal rectal n.
structures supplied by the vaginal a.?
vagina
uterus
urinary bladder
urethra
ureter
rectum
what is the quivalent of the vaginal a. in the male?
prostatic a.
brs. off of the prostatic a.
artery of the ductus deferens
middle rectal a.
br. off of the artery of the ductus deferens
caudal vesicle a. (urethral and ureteral brs.)
3 main brs. off of internal pudendal a.
prostatic a.
ventral perineal a.
artery of the penis
br, off of ventral perineal a.
caudal rectal a.
brs off of the artery of the penis
artery of the bulb of the penis
deep artery of the penis
dorsal artery of the penis
structures supplied by the prostatic a.
prostrate
ductus deferens
epididymis
urinary bladder
urethra
ureter
rectum
correct term for bladder
urinary bladder
regions of the bladder
apex
body
neck
mucosal folds in bladder
ruggae
structure formed by the openings of the 2 ureters and the entrance of the urethra (dorsally located)
trigome
what is the pressure sensitive structure in the bladder that sends the message that the bladder is full? (gets irritated during bladder infection)
trigome
what muscle surrounds the bladder?
smooth or skeletal?
urinary bladder muscle
smooth muscle
what is the urinary bladder muscle innervated by?
hypogastric n. (sympathetic)
pelvic n. (parasympathetic)
pudendal n. (sensory)
blood supply to bladder?
mainly from prostativ/vaginal a.
minor contribution from umbilical aa.
what is the muscle that surrounds the pelvic urethra? smooth or skeletal?

action
urethralis m.
skeletal

acts as an involuntary sphincter
what is the urethralis m. innervated by?
pudendal n.
2 parts of urethra
pelvic
penile
arteries from the umbilical aa. that supply the bladder?
cranial vesical aa.
what do the lateral ligaments of the bladder contain? in adults and in fetus
fetus-ureter and umbilical a.

adult-ureter and round ligament of bladder
what is the remnant of the umbilical a.
round ligament of the bladder?
where is the round ligament of the bladder located?
lateral ligament of the bladder
what does the median ligament of the bladder contain in adults and fetus?
fetus-umbilical aa. and urachus

adult-usually doesnt contain anything
what are the remnants of the ventral mesentery

the nonremnant of the ventral mesentery?
falciform ligament
median ligament of the bladder

lesser omentum
T/F: when full, the bladder extends into the abdominal cavity
T
the urethra in the female carries urine from....
the urinary bladder to the vestibule
T/F: the external urethral orifice is dorsal to the urethral tubercle
F: ventral to the urethral tubercle
another term for the penile urethra?
spongy urethra
another term for sex glands
accessory genital glands
functions of accessory genital glands
1) adds volume to ejaculate (vehicle for sperm)
2) provides a source of energy for sperm
3) acts as a buffer by neutralizing pH in the urine and CO2 produced by sperm
4) production of prostaglandins that cause smooth muscle contraction in the female repro. tract
all possible sex glands
prostate
ampullary glands
bulbourethral glands
vesicular glands
sex glands in male dog
prostate
ampullary glands
male cat sex glands
prostate
bulbourethral glands
which sex gland surrounds the urethra at the neck of the bladder
prostate
which gland is located in the wall of the terminal portion of the ductus deferens?
ampullary glands
what structure courses from the epididymis and drain into the urethra?
ductus deferens
T/F: the prostate has several openings that drain into the urethra
T
what should you check in geriatric male patients?
prostate-digital rectal exam
difference b/w cat and dog pre-prostatic urethra?
dog-short pre-prostatic urethra

cat-long pre-prostatic urethra
the pre-prostatic urethra is also called the....
neck of the bladder
what is located on the dorsal surface of the prostatic urethra that is a continuation of the urethral crest?
colliculus seminalis
the ductus deferens open on each side of the....
colliculus seminalis
what structure enlarges to block urine from entering urethra during copulation?
colliculus seminalis
why is it extremely difficult to remove the prostate?
many openings into the portion of the urethra surrounded by prostate
T/F: the prostate is further cranial in the cat
F: located further caudally along the urethra than in the dog
what is located dorsally near the ischial arch, just cranial to the attachment of the penis to the ischium? (cat only)
bulbourethral gland
what is the bulbourethral gland a landmark for? (which procedure?)
perineal urethrostomy
continuation of the descending colon within the pelvic cavity
rectum
boundaries of the rectum
pelvic outlet

Ca2-3
what is b/w the rectum and anus
anal canal
cranial boundary of anal canal
Ca4
3 regions of anal canal
columnar zone-rectal mucosa (longitudinal folds)
intermediate zone-anocutaneous line
cutaneous zone-location of the openings of the anal sinuses (sacs)
within the walls of the anal sacs
anal glands
anal sac location around anus
3:00-4:00

8:00-9:00
anal sacs open in to which zone of anal canal?
cutaneous zone
what surrounds the anal canal
anal sphincters
br. of the pudendal n. that innervates the external anal sphincter
caudal rectal n.
difference b/w external and internal sphincters
external-
skeletal, located superficial to anal sacs

internal-
smooth m., located deep to anal sacs
the smooth muscle that is continuous with the smooth muscle of the rectum ( and internal anal sphincter and retractor penis m.)

action
rectococcygeus m.

aids in defecation, stabilizes the rectum
which lymphnodes drain into the medial iliac ln.?
superficial inguinal ln.
popliteal ln.
sacral ln.
internal iliac ln.
caudal mesenteric ln.
main lymph areas
thoracic duct
cisterna chyli
celiac lymphocenter
cranial mesenteric lymphocenter
caudal mesenteric lymphocenter
iliosacral lymphocenter
lumbar trunks
main causes of enlarged lymph nodes
cancer
infection
layers of rectus sheath cranial to umbilicus
ext. abd. oblique
int. abd. oblique
rectus abdominis
int. abd. oblique
transversus abdominis
layers of rectus sheath caudal to umbilicus
ext. abd. oblique
int. abd. oblique
rectus abdominis
transversus abdominis
layers of rectus sheath cranial to pubis
ext. abd. oblique
int. abd. oblique
transversus abdominis
rectus abdominis
pelvic n. runs with...
vaginal or prostatic a.
pararectal fossa
pouch on either side of the mesorectum
rectogenital pouch
b/w colon and genitals
vesicogenital pouch
b/w bladder and genital system
pubovesical pouch
b/w pubic bone and bladder
internal iliac a. becomes internal pudendal a. when which br. occur?
caudal gluteal a.
1st br. off of internal iliac a.
umbilical a.
br. off of umbilical a. if patent?
cranial vesical a.
1st br. off of internal pudendal a.?
prostatic/vaginal a.
1st br. off of prostatic/vaginal a.
artery of the ductus deferens/ uterine
br. off of artery of the ductus deferens/uterine
caudal vesical a.
final br. of the internal pudendal a.
ventral perineal a.
br. off of ventral perineal a.
caudal rectal a.
3 main brs. off of internal pudendal a.
prostatic/vaginal a.

ventral perineal a.

artery of the penis/clitoris
3 brs. off of artery of the penis
artery of the bulb of the penis

deep artery of the penis

dorsal artery of the penis
3 m,ain brs. off of internal iliac
umbilical. a

internal pudendal a.

caudal gluteal a.
which n. runs with internal pudendal a.?
pudendal n.
dorsal a. of the penis runs with?
dorsal n. of the penis
caudal abdominal lymph centers
medial ilaic ln.

internal iliac/hypogastric ln.

caudal mesenteric ln.
openings to the cervical canal
internal uterine ostium

external uterine ostium
which uterine ostium is located cranial to the cervix?
internal uterine ostium
dead end that surrounds the cervix
fornix of vagina
pseudocervix that suspends the cervix
dorsal median postcervical fold
glans clitoridis location relative to the fossa clitoridis
glans is dorsal to the fossa
most prominent aspect of the urethral crest in males
colliculus seminalis
muscle that surrounds the crus of the penis (on either side)
ischiocavernosus m.
what muscle is b/w the ischiocavernosus m.?
bulbospongiosus m.
what muscles runs the entire length of the penis?
retractor penis m.
what is the expansion of the corpus spongiosum penis?
bulb of the penis
what surrounds the urethra in males?
corpus spongiosum penis
what surrounds the corpus cavernosum penis?
tunica albuginea
where does the root of the penis attach?
ischiatic tuberosity
components of the glans of the penis
bulbus glandis with corpus spongiosum glandis

pars longa glandis with corpus spongiosum glandis

corpus spongiosum penis

lymphoid nodules proximal to bulbus glandis

os penis with urethral groove
what is found on the free part of the penis without glans only in intact male cats?
keratin barbs
another term for erectile tissue
cavernous tissue (where blood fills)
located in the bulbus glandis?
corpus spongiosum glandis of bulbus glandis
locates in the pars longa glandis?
corpus spongiosum glandis of the pars longa glandis
contraction of which muscles causes blood to flow through the corpus cavernosum and corpus spongiosum during erection
ischiocavernosi m.

bulbospongiosus m.
is retractor penis m. smooth or skeletal?
smooth
which muscle is continuous with retractor penis m., levator ani m., anal sphincters?
rectococcygeous m.
which muscle inserts on the fibrous ring that surrounds the common trunk of the R and L dorsal veins of the penis?
ischiourethralis m.
bulb of the penis is covered by?
bulbospongiosus muscle
what ends when the os penis beings?
corpus cavernosum
what causes the tip of the penis to bend so it is positioned better up against the cervix?
os penis helps deform the fibrocartilage tip of the penis
2 parts of the glans penis

both contain what?
bulbus glandis

pars longa glandis

both contain corpus spongiosum glandis
apex of the feline penis is directed....
caudoventrally
fold of skin covering the glans of the penis
prepuce
T/F: if you pull too forcefully on the testes, you can rip a ureter (in cats)
T
primary supply to the penis
internal pudendal a. (gives rise to the artery of the penis)
T/F: the external pudendal a. also supplies branches to the penis that anastamose witht he preputial br. of the dorsal a. of the penis
T
deep artery of the penis supplies..
crus (made of tunica albuguinea, corpus cavernosum penis, and os penis)
dorsal a. of the penis supplies
prepuce, superficial surface of penis, pars longa glandis
artery of the bulb supplies..
bulb of the penis, corpus spongiosum penis, penile urethra
veins draining the penis drain into..
external/internal pudendal aa.
drainage of blood from penis to caudal vena cava
internal pudendal v./internal iliac v.
external pudendal v./external iliac v.
internal/external iliac join the common iliac vv. which join to form the caudal vena cava
lymphatics from the penis drain into the
superficial inguinal ln.
pudendal n. brs.
deep perineal brs.
dorsal n. of the penis
chief sensory nerve of the penis
dorsal nerve of the penis (from pudendal n.)
nonerection
blood flow to the penis bypasses the cavernous tissue
erection
filling of cavernous tissue with blood

stimulation of pelvic nerve (parasympathetic n.) causes relaxation of the smooth muscle in the vessels
blood is directed toward which arteries during an erection
helicine brs.
last part of penis to enlarge-no direct supply
bulbus glandis
maintenance of erection
neurogenic-parasympathetic stimulation
ischiourethralis m. restrict venous return
ischial arch-compresses dorsal veins of the penis
penis twists on long axis on dismount-restricts venous return
constrictor vulvae m. and vestibuli m. in female also inhibit venous return
relaxation of retractor penis m.
phimosis
congenital narrowing of preputial orifice
paraphimosis
extended penis is unable to be withdrawn back into the prepuce