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60 Cards in this Set

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Social identity is:
c) Way that individuals define themselves in relation to groups they are a part of or groups they choose not to be a part of
Which of the "founding fathers" of sociology put forth the idea that sociologists should examine social behavior from the perspective of those engaging in the behavior?
Max Weber
Paradoxically, using our sociological imagination helps us:
Make the familiar strange
A social institution can be described as:
A group of social positions, connected by social relations, that perform a social role
According to Karl Marx, throughout history social change has been sparked by:
Class conflict
The Chicago School of American Sociology emphasized the importance of
The environment in shaping people's behavior and personalities
Which of the following describes a difference between sociology and psychology?
Sociology focuses on social structures and group interactions, while psychology focuses on the urges, instincts, and mind of the individual
The examination of everyday human social interactions on a small scale describes
Microsociology
Which of the following is NOT a definition of the term 'culture?'
The Natural environment
Ideology can be described as
A system of concepts and relationships that guides an individual or large group
Which of the following is an example of using cultural relativism to think about cultural differences?
You see a news story about a country where people often eat spicy seafood dishes in the morning and then wonder what people there would think of eating chocolate-favored cereal and milk for breakfast
A/An _____ can be defined as a group that shares distinct cultural values and behavioral patterns that distinguish it from others within the same culture or society
Subculture
Sociologically speaking, values can be defined as
Moral beliefs
____ can be defined as a process in which a dominant group, by virtue of its moral and intellectual leadership in society, secures the voluntary "consent" of the masses
Hegemony
The use of stereotypes allows people to
Ignore complex, underlying issues that are difficult to talk about
In the US, media ownership is
Centralized in the hands of a few big companies
Which of the following is an example of non-material culture?
Spirituality
Socialization is the process by which people
Internalize the beliefs, values, and behaviors of a given society and learn to function as a member of that society
What invention can be said to have led to the first truly mass medium?
The Printing Press
Audience studies explore
How people read and interpret information from various media
The nature vs. nurture debate examines the importance of ____ in shaping human behavior
Biology, on the one hand, and social interaction, on the other
In social development theory, the "self" can be defined as
The individual identity of a person as perceived by that same person
Which of the following is an example of recognizing the "generalized other?"
A child is taught to hold the door for her parents or siblings when they are carrying something into the house. While at the mall she holds the door for a stranger who is carrying several bads
Which of the following is an example of a total institution?
A Convent
Re-socialization would be most likely to occur in which of the following situations?
A man makes a career change from being an accountant with a large auditing company to being a graphic designer in a small ad agency
An ascribed status is
A status into which one is born
Which of the following theories argues that people's choices about how to act are based on shared meanings, orientations, and assumptions?
Symbolic interactionism
According to the dramaturgical theory, the primary goal of every social interaction is
To make a good impression
According to the sociologist Georg Simmel, what is the single most important factor in predicting the behavior of members of a social group?
The number of people in the group
One of the most unique characteristics of a dyad is that
If one member of the group leaves, the group ceases to exist
A group with five members has the potential for how many relationships?
10
According to the sociologist Georg Simmel's categories, what is the key difference between a small group and a party?
A small group is unifocal, wheras a party is multifocal
A secondary group is characterized by
Voluntary membership in the group
Which of the following is an example of a primary group?
A family in which the parents live in California, one son lives in Colorado, and two daughters live in Florida
The Asch Test provides insight into what concept?
Group conformity
A/An ____ is a group that helps us understand or make sense of our position in society relative to the other group
Reference Group
In the context of social networks, a tie is
A set of stories that explains our relationship to the other members of our network
A structural hole is
A gap between two people or two groups that have complementary resources and could benefit from having a closer connection
____ is/are the information, knowledge of people or things, and connections that help individuals enter preexisting networks or gain power in them
Social capital
What social trend, related to social capital, did Robert Putnam focus on in his book Bowling Alone?
People are less involved in communal activities and organizations
Which of the following is an example of informal deviance?
Telling the hostess of a dinner party that you didn't like the main dish
Definitions of deviant behavior tend to
Change over time and very from one context to another
Organic solidarity can be defined as
Social cohesion based on the differences and the interdependence of specialized parts of society
What is the irony of the relationship between deviance and society?
Deviance helps hold societies together by uniting people in opposition to behavior that is deemed unacceptable
Which of the following is an example of rehabilitative justice?
Entering a work training program after being released from prison
Informal social sanctions are
Understood by members of a social group without being openly expressed
According to Emile Durkeim's theory of suicide, what two factors have the most impact on suicide rates?
Social integration and social regulation
Anomie can be defined as a sense of aimlessness or despair that develops when an individual
Experiences a loss of order and normalcy from too little social regulation
Robert Merton's strain theory argues that deviance occurs when
A society holds out the same goals to all its members but does not give them equal ability to achieve these goals
According to strain theory, a ritualist is a person who
Rejects socially defined goals but not the socially acceptable means to achieve them
Which of the following is an exapmle of a stigma in U.S. society?
Having a speech impediment
Differential opportunity theory links what two things in analyzing deviance?
Economic opportunities and crime rates
____ refers to crimes committed by a professional against a corporation, agency, or other business
White-collar crime
What is one explanation for why it can by difficult to accurately measure changes in crime rates?
Definitions of crimes change over time
Recidivism occurs when
A person who has been in the criminal justice system relapses into criminal behavior
The goal of correctional centers and mental health institutions to help inmates or patients learn to be productive members of society may be at odds with
The way life in a total institution can strip away a person's self-identity and leave him or her feeling lost and vulnerable
Since the 1970's, incarcerations rates in the US have
Risen dramatically
One of the effects of mass incarceration in the US has been
The disenfranchisement of millions of former felons
Secondary deviance refers to
Subsequent violations of societal rules that occur after primary deviance and as a result of being labeled "deviant
In "Discipline and Punish," the French theorist Michel Foucault examines how the modern penal system
Represents a transformation in social control