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39 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are the first things to note on a patient?
Signalment (species, age and breed)
What heart disease are more likely in young dogs?
Older dogs?
congenital
acquired
What common heart conditions are seen in large breed dogs?
Small Breeds?
Cats?
Dilated cardiomyopathy
Atrioventricular valvular degeneration
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
Which sided heart failure do you see coughing and dyspnea?
Ascites?
left sided
right sided
What is pulse?
the perceived difference between the systolic and diastolic pressures in an artery

compare to auscultated heart rate

take pulse in femoral artery of dogs and cats
What are the common causes of tachycardia?
heart failure
shock
fear
excitement
exercise
pain
What can cause an increase in temperature in relation to heart disease?
Decreased?
may be elevated with myocarditis, valvular endocarditis, hyperthyroidism

heart failure most patients have normal temp
What is a normal cause of a change in pulse rhythm?
inspiration (respiratory sinus arrhythmia)
seen in brachyocephalic dogs
What can cause weak pulse?
-dilated cardiomyopathy
-shock
-Aortic Stenosis
-pericardial effusion

Weak pulse are called hypokinetic
What is a waterhammer pulse?
What are causes of this?
-strong pulse with sharp rise and fall in pulse pressure
-associated with variation between systolic and diastolic pressure, AV shunts and severe anemia
What response is triggered by a decrease in blood pressure?
sympathetic response - heart rate increases
What can pale mucous membranes indicate?
fear, left heart failure or shock
What can cyanotic mucous membranes indicate?
right to left shunts, severe left heart failure
What does brick red mucous membranes indicate?
erythrocytosis or right to left shunts
What does a delayed CRT of the mucous membranes indicate?
decrease left ventricular output or vasoconstriction from shock or fear
What is the beat of the heart that is felt on the thoracic wall?
Where is this heard?
-Apical beat
-Between 5th and 6th intercostal space where the mitral valve is located
In what animal is the apical beat stronger?
in an younger thinner animal
What can cause a weak apical beat?
-heart failure
-shock
-obesity
-emphysema
-effusion
What position should the dog be in when auscultating the heart?
standing
What frequency does the bell of the stethoscope detect?
The diaphragm?
low frequency
Higher frequencies
What causes heart sounds?
valve movements and/or turbulence in blood flow
-listen to both sides
How many heart sounds are recognized?
How many are normally audible in dogs and cats?
four
two
What causes S1 sound?
Where is it heard?
closure of AV valves
5th and 6th intercostal space (apical beat)

-lower, lower and louder than S2
-occurs after the longest period of silence and can be heard just before pulse can be palpated
Where can S2 be heard?
What does is sound like compared to S1?
-best heard over the aortic and pulmonary valves (4th intercostal space at point of shoulder, 3rd left intercostal space btwn point of shoulder and sternum.

-soft, shorter and higher pitched than S1
When do you hear S3?
abnormal to hear S3 in dog and cat and usually occurs with massive left ventricle enlargement

-rapid passive ventricular filling
Where do you hear S4?
occurs as a result of contraction of the atria and is usually not hear in the dog and cat
-can be heard with reduced ventricular compliance
--HCM in cats
--aortic stenosis in dogs
If you heard an extra heart sound what is the next best thing to do?
send the animal for an ultrasound
What is a systolic click?
-a sound heard in early signs of mitral valve degeneration

-occurs when the chordate tendinae snap tight as the degenerative mitral valve protrudes into the left atrium in mid systole

-seen in small breed dogs
What are murmurs?
What causes them?
-audible vibrations
-produced by turbulent flow
What can murmurs indicate?
-narrowing of vessels (pulmonic stenosis)
-valvular insifficency
-increased rate of blood flow
-decreased viscosity
What animals are common to have murmurs?
young puppies with anemia
What type of murmur is common to hear in dogs and cats?
systolic
What is a holosystolic heart murmur?
lub-swish-dub
What is a pansystolic murmur?
a murmur where you can only hear swishing over normal heart sounds
What are diastolic murmurs?
aortic or pulmonic valve insufficiency

rare in dogs and cats
What are continuous murmurs?
What do they sound like?
What is a common cause?
-occur during systole and diastole
-sounds like machinery
-patent ductus arteriosis
How would you describe a murmur resulting from endocardiosis?
A pathological grade 3/6 holosystolic murmur loudest over the mitral valve and radiating to tricuspid valve area
How are murmurs grades?
Including and above this grade the murmur is heard on both sides of chest?
Scale of 6, 1/6 - 6/6
4/6
If you see jugular vein distension,what might that mean?
right sided congestive heart failure
pericardial effusion