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202 Cards in this Set

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carbohydrate - nutrient that supplies energy
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nutrient - chemical substances in food needed by the body for growth, energy and life processes
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protein - nutrient needed to build and repair cells, protect organs
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Your body needs nutrients for growth, energy and to perform life processes.
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Simple carbohydrates give your body energy over a short period of time.
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The energy-storage nutrients are fats
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Your body uses protein to build and repair cells.
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Starches and grains are good sources of complex carbohydrates.
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The two kinds of carbohydrates are simple and complex
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Fat that is stored in the body is used for insulatiion and to protect your organs
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Fats can be either liquids or solids
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The largest amount of food energy comes from
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Starches are complex carbohydrates
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Liquid fats are usually called oils
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Carbohydrates are nutrients that supply your body with energy
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Starches and sugars are carbohydrates
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Amino acid is the building block of proteins
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Enzyme - protein that controls chemical activities
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molecule - smallest part of a substance that has all the properties of that substance
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Substances that control chemical activities in cells are called enzymes.
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The building blocks of proteins are amino acids.
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There are about 20 different amino acids.
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Proteins are the largest molecules in living things.
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All proteins contain atoms of carbon, oxygen, hydrogren and nitrogen.
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Proteins are used to build new cells, repair damaged cells, make enzymes, control chemical activities and as a soure of energy.
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Cells in your body make their own proteins by combining amino acids
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Nutrients made up of amino acids are called proteins.
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A deficiency disease is a disease caused by the lack of a certain nutriet
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A vitamin is a nutrient made by living organisms
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Vitamins are nutrients that are found naturally in foods
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A deficiency disease is caused by a diet that is missing a certain nutrient.
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Rickets is a deficiency disease that causes soft bones and teeth
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Rickets is caused by a lack of Vitamin D
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Vitamins are important for growth and for proper body function
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A deficiency disease is caused by the lack of a certain nutrient
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A weakened condition that results from a lack of a certain nutrient is called a deficiency disease
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A mineral is a nutrient needed by the body to develop properly
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Anemia is a deficiency disease if you take in too little iron
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Our bodies need small amounts of some minerals
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We need small amounts of iron, iodine, sulfur and zine.
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We need large amounts of calcium, phosphorus and sodium
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Sodium is needed for healthy muscles and nerves
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Bones are hard because they contain calcium
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Goiter is a deficiency disease when you get too little iodine.
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Each mineral has a different job.
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Calcium and phosphorus are the minerals needed to build strong teeth and bones.
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Our bodies need minerals as well as vitamins to grow.
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Iron is the mineral needed to form red blood cells.
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malnutrition
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Balanced diets contain the proper amounts of ______
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The _____ shows the kinds of foods and the number of servings you should eat each day.
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The Food Guide Pyramid divides foods into _____ groups.
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You should eat at least the ______ number of servings in each food group of the pyramid.
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Eating a balanced diet will help you stay healthy.
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The Food Guide Pyramid shows you how to choose the right kinds of foods.
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The food group that should make up the largest portion on your diet is on the bottom of the pyramid.
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The top of the pyramid shows foods that should make up the smallest amount of your diet.
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Eat sparingly from the top group.
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Eat at least the lowest number of servings from other groups.
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The pyramid shows the kinds of foods and the number of servings a person should have each day.
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An overweight person can be malnourished if they eat too many foods from one group and not enough foods from another group.
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Malnutrition occurs when you eat too much food from one group and not enough from another group.
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Calorie - unit used to measure energy from foods
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Oxidation - slow burning of foods in your body that produces the energy that your body needs
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Oxidation is the process that produces the energy your body needs
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A calorie is a unit used to measure food energy.
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We get the energy we need from food.
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Your body needs energy to stay alive.
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You need energy to walk, to run, to grow and to sleep. Your heart needs energy to pump blood thru the body.
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As food gets broken down in the body, it produces energy.
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Living cells get most of their energy by the oxidation of sugar
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Carbon dioxide and water are the waste products of oxidation
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All foods do not give off the same amount of energy
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Fat is the nutrient that supplies the most energy.
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Each gram of protein and carbohydrate gives off 4 Calories of energy
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Foods with high amounts of fat have more Calories because they supply more energy.
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If you eat more calories than you need, you will gain weight.
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The largest amount of food energy comes from fats.
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Digestion - process by which foods are changed into forms the body can use
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Epiglottis - flap of tissue that prevents food from entering the windpipe
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Esophagus - tube that connects the mouth to the stomach
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The process by which foods are changed into usable forms is called digestion.
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The end of the large intestine is called the rectum.
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Peristalsis is the wavelike movement that moves food thru the digestive system
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Food is moved through the digestive tract by a wavelike movement called peristalsis.
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The foods we eat are not in a form the body can use. They must be changed so that they can be used by the body.
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During digestion, larger pieces of food are broken down into smaller pieces.
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During digestion, complex chemicals in food are also changed into simpler ones.
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The foods we eat move through a coiled tube inside the body called the digestive tract.
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The digestive tract and other digestive organs make up your digestive system.
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Some digestive organs are the liver, pancreas, and gall bladder.
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The liver, pancreas and gall bladder are not part of the digestive tract but they do help with digestion.
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The mouth is the beginning of the digestive system.
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Mouth > esophagus > stomach > small intestine > large intestine > rectum
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Undigested food from the small intestine moves into the large intestine.
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When food is swalled, it enters the esophagus.
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The walls of the esophagus secrete mucus which helps the food move thru the esophagus easily.
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Food is move thru the digestive system by wavelike movements of muscle called peristalsis.
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The esophagus connects the mouth to the stomach.
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The epiglottis, a thin flap of tissue, keeps food from entering the windpipe.
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Chemical digestion is the process by which large food molecules are broken down into smaller food molecules
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Mechanical digestion is the process by which large pieces of food are cut and crushed into smaller pieces
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Mechancial digestion begins in the mouth
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Liquid in the mouth that helps in digestion
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Saliva begins the chemical digestion of starches
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Changes in shape and size are examples of physical changes.
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Shape and size are physical properties
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The crushing of food by the teeth is a physical change.
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The liquid found in the mouth is called saliva
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Enzymes in saliva change starches into sugars.
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Enzymes are chemicals that control chemical reactions in the body.
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Chemical digestion is the breakdown of large food molecules into small food molecules.
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Mechanical disgestion is the physical change of large pieces of food into smaller pieces of food.
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Food is changed into usable forms two ways -- physically and chemically.
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A chemical change results in new substances.
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Chemical digestion begins in the mouth with saliva.
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Mechanical digestion provides a larger surface area for the enzymes to work on.
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The enzyme in saliva helps digest starch.
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The enzyme in saliva changes starch into sugar.
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Digestion is the process that changes food into usable form
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Food is crushed by the teeth. The tongue moves the food around.
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The four different kinds of teeth are: incisors, canines, premolars and molars
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Incisors cut and tear
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Canines cut and tear
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Premolars grind and crush
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Molars grind and crush
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An adult has 32 teeth
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The stomach stores and breaks down food
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The stomach looks like a J-shaped, baglike organ.
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Mechanical digestion takes place in the mouth and stomach
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The walls of the stomach are made up of layers of strong muscles
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The stomach muscles tighten and squeeze the food to break it down into small pieces
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The stomach produces the liquid called gastric juice
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The small pieces of food in the stomach are mixed with the stomach juice called gastric juice
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Gastric juice makes the food in the stomach soft
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Gastric juice contains 1) mucus, 2) pepsin and 3) hydrochloric acid
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11.10
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Pepsin helps to digest protein
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Hydrochloric acid is a very strong acid that is needed to make the stomach acidic
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Pepson can work only in an acidic environment
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Hycrocholric acid kills bacteria in the stomach and helps to break down food
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The mucus in gastric juice protects the stomach lining from the hydrochloric acid and pepsin
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After food has been crushed by the stomach and mixed with gastric juice, it is ready to leave the stomach
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Food leaves the stomach is in the form of a thick liquid called chyme
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Chyme is released slowly from the stomach into the small intestine
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The liquid chyme leaves the stomach and goes to the small intestine
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The small intestine is a long coiled tube
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The small intestine is about 6.5m long and 2.5 cm wide
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The walls of the small intestine are muscular like the stomach
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Food moves through the small intestine by peristalsis.
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Peristalsis is ?????
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Most chemical digestion of food takes place in the small intestine
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Digestive juices in the small intestine contain many enzymes
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The pancreas releases digestive juices into the small intestine
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The pancreas releases the digestive juices.when food enters the small intestine
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Pancreatic digestive juices contain enzymes
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The enzymes in the pancreatic digestive juices change starches, proteins and fats into simpler forms
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The digestive juices travel from the pancreas to the small intestine thru a small tube
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The enzymes in the digestive juices complete digestion
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Lipase is one of the enzymes in the digestive juices
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Lipase is an ezyme that digest fats and oils
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Oils and fats are digested by the enzyme lipase
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Fats are not digested in the mouth and stomach
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Fats are only digested in the small intestine
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Starch and proteins are digested in the mouth and stomach
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All digestion is completed in the small intestine
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The pancreas is a small organ that lies below the stomach
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The pancreas aids in chemical digestion by releasing digestive juices into the small intestine to change starches, proteins and fats into simpler forms
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The liver is the largest organ in the human body
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Bile is produced in the liver
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The liver produces bile. This is one of the jobs of the liver.
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Bile is a green liquid that breaks down fats and oils
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Bile is responsible for the emulsification of fat.
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Emulsification is the breaking down of large fat droplets into smaller fat droplets
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Emulsification occurs in the liver
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Bile does not move directly from the liver to the small intestine
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The gall bladder is a sac that stores bile
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The gall bladder is located under the liver
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Bile moves from the gall bladder into the small intestine thru a small tube
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Absorption is the movement of food from the digestive system to the blood
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The colon is the large intestine
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Villi is a fingerlike projection on the lining of the small intestine
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Absorption of fats, proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins and water takes place thru the walls of the small intestine
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Once digested food is inside the blood, it is carried to all of your body cells
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The inner lining of the small intestine is folded.
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The folds have millions of tiny fingerlike projections called villi.
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Villi are fingerlike projections on the lining of the small intestine
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Villus is the singular form of villi
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The folds and villi make the surface area of the small intestine bigger
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Digested food passes thru the layer of villi and into the blood vessels
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Food is absorbed into the blood in the small intestine
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The large intestine is the last part of the digestive system
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The large intestine is also called the colon
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Water and minerals are absorbed into the blood in the large intestine
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The remaining solid wastes in the large intestine are stored temporarily in the rectum
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Undigested food is elimiated from body via the rectum
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The appendix is a small, thin sac located where the small intestine and large intestine meet
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Scientists do not know what the appendix does in humans
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Sometimes the appendix becomes infected with bacteria
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An infection of the appendix Is called appendicitis
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An infected appendix must be removed
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Food gets to all the body cells when it is taken into the bloodstream
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