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34 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Describe the Cardiac tube at 4 weeks
Sinuatrium (both atria), primitive ventricle (both ventricles), bulbus cordis (outflow tract portion of both ventricles), truncus arteriosis (aorta and pulmonary arteries)
Chambers in series
In the Next 4 weeks, the cardiac tube doubles over on itself. Describe what happens
Doupbling over of cardiac tube creates two pumps in parallel, both with 2 chambers each
Endocardial cushions develop: specialized cells responsible for the develoment of the AV canal (atrial septum primum, upper portion of the ventricular septum, the medial leaflets of the mitral and tricuspid valves)
the prototype of endocardial defects
Trisomy 21
Various fetal environmental issues can result in hypertrophy of the opposite wall of the aorta from the PDA and result in WHAT?
coarctaion of the aorta
Rubella can cause what congenital defects?
PDA, PS, ASD
Lithium can cause what congenital HD?
tricuspid valve abnormalities
Maternal Lupus can cause what CHD?
congenital heart block
TEST QUESTION:

ECG finding of ostium primum.
ECG left axis deviation is hallmark
ECG finding of ostium secundum
Normal or rightward ECG axis
What CHD?
Abnormality of SVC/pulmonary vein development/insertion
85% associated with anomalous pulmonary vein-SVC attachment
Sinus Venosus ASD
What ASD?
15-20% associated with MVP
Secundum ASD
What ASD?
Endocardial cushion defect
Primum ASD
Which ASD?
Connective tissue abnormality
Secundum ASD
Which ASD?
Possible association with VSD, MR, TR, heart block
Primum ASD
ASD has fixed splitting. What is the diff b/w fixed and persistent splitting?
Persistent splitting is associated with a block and the split still changes with respiration (?)
What do you see in CXR of ASD?
prominent pulm. Vasculature
What is diagnostic tool for ASD?
Echo
Murmur of ASD?
Early systolic murmur (diamond shaped), upper left sternal border (results from increased pulmonary outflow tract flow)
Murmur of VSD?
Classic murmur: holosystolic, mid left sternal border, possible thrill
Symptoms of VSD?
Small: Asymptomatic
Big: Dyspnea, chf, fatigue
4 parts of TOF
VSD, RV outflow obstruction, RV hypertrophy, over-riding aorta
Murmur of PDA
Conitnuous, machine-like murmur, upper left sternal border
Describe the possible cyanosis pattern of Eisenmenger's PDA
Eisenmenger’s can result in differential cyanosis (lower body only) because of location of shunt)
Most common congenital abnormality with AS
Bicuspid AV
Other causes of AS symptoms
Sub valvular membrane, sub valvular muscular hypertrophy: rare
Supra-valvular stenosis
Murmur of AS
Clinically, early systolic murmur, 2nd RICS
combination of ASD with rheumatic acquired MS: anything is possible
Think of potential clinical manifestations (ASD, obstruction of MV flow magnifies left to right shunt)
Lutenbacher’s syndrome:
Murmur of PS
Early systolic murmur, upper left sternal border
Cleft MV leaflet: Which one? What's defect assoc.?
Medial leaflet, endocardial cushion defect
What "anomaly"?
(low insertion of the TV in the RV, associated with ASD. TR can be severe.
Epstein's
Murmur of coarctation of aorta
Systolic murmur over left precordium, back
What type of anomalous coronary artery?
Benign, most common, 1% of population
CX always takes a posterior course, no clinical issue
CX origin from right sinus or RCA
What type of anomalous coronary artery?
If it takes an anterior course (anterior to PA) no clinical issue
Coursing between PA and aorta can result in constriction with exertion, sudden ischemia, sudden death
LAD from right sinus or RCA

or

LCA from right sinus or RCA
What type of anomalous coronary artery?
Posterior course, no clinical issue
Course between PA and Aorta: exercise related sudden ischemia, sudden death
RCA from left sinus or LCA